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Table 2 Correlations among the study variables

From: Investigating the associations of early numeracy activities and skills with mathematics dispositions, engagement, and achievement among fourth graders in the United Arab Emirates

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
1. Gender           
2. Immigration status 0.02**          
3. Language of test spoken at home 0.01* 0.16**         
4. Home resources for learning − 0.01 − 0.21** − 0.10**        
5. Parental attitude toward math and science − 0.02** − 0.16** − 0.11** 0.16**       
6. Students engaged in math lessons 0.06** − 0.07** − 0.00 0.07** 0.09**      
7. Students like learning math 0.04** − 0.06** 0.04** 0.02** 0.09** 0.55**     
8. Students confident in math 0.01 − 0.09** 0.02** 0.12** 0.10** 0.40** 0.55**    
9. Early numeracy activities 0.02** − 0.06** 0.06** 0.22** 0.17** 0.17** 0.07** 0.12**   
10. Could do early numeracy tasks 0.01 − 0.07** − 0.03** 0.04** 0.08** 0.08** 0.10** 0.12** 0.12**  
11. Math achievement 0.03** − 0.35** − 0.12** 0.47** 0.20** 0.20** 0.19** 0.34** 0.20** 0.15**
  1. For a correlation, effect size is indicated by the absolute value; those under 0.10 are trivial and values between 0.10 and 0.30 are small (Cohen, 1992)
  2. *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01