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Table 11 Beta regression of student test-taking effort on expectancy-value proxies in

From: Student test-taking effort in low-stakes assessments: evidence from the English version of the PISA 2015 science test

Effect AUS CAN
Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4
\(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE
Intercept 2.47 0.05 1.70 0.04 1.91 0.06 1.46 0.04 2.48 0.07 1.89 0.05 2.04 0.04 1.71 0.04
Expectancy
 Scieeff 0.00 0.03 0.04 0.03 − 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 − 0.05 0.02 0.00 0.02
 Envaware 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.01
Value
 Anxtest 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.02 − 0.03 0.03 − 0.05 0.03 0.00 0.02 − 0.02 0.02 − 0.02 0.02 − 0.05 0.02
 Intbrsci 0.07 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.15 0.03 0.15 0.03 0.09 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.09 0.03 0.09 0.02
 Joyscie 0.07 0.03 0.10 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.07 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.07 0.02 0.10 0.02 0.10 0.02
 Scieact − 0.07 0.03 − 0.06 0.03 − 0.08 0.03 − 0.10 0.04 − 0.08 0.02 − 0.09 0.02 − 0.07 0.02 − 0.08 0.02
Precision 4.07 0.13 2.45 0.06 2.68 0.10 2.20 0.07 4.34 0.24 3.09 0.10 3.51 0.09 3.07 0.08
Pseudo R2 0.04 0.01 0.06 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.06 0.01 0.05 0.01