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Table 10 Mean student test-taking effort and correlation with science achievement computed on the subsample of students whose total RT for the session is lower than 3000 s (50 min)

From: Student test-taking effort in low-stakes assessments: evidence from the English version of the PISA 2015 science test

Country Mean effort Correlation between effort and science achievement
Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4
\(\widehat{\upmu }\) SE \(\widehat{\upmu }\) SE \(\widehat{\upmu }\) SE \(\widehat{\upmu }\) SE \(\widehat{\uprho }\) SE \(\widehat{\uprho }\) SE \(\widehat{\uprho }\) SE \(\widehat{\uprho }\) SE
AUS 0.93 0.00 0.87 0.00 0.90 0.00 0.85 0.00 0.43 0.02 0.57 0.01 0.54 0.01 0.60 0.01
CAN 0.93 0.00 0.89 0.00 0.89 0.00 0.86 0.01 0.40 0.02 0.48 0.02 0.51 0.02 0.56 0.01
GBR 0.93 0.00 0.86 0.00 0.87 0.00 0.82 0.01 0.41 0.02 0.52 0.02 0.53 0.02 0.59 0.02
IRL 0.94 0.00 0.90 0.00 0.92 0.00 0.88 0.01 0.37 0.02 0.48 0.02 0.46 0.02 0.51 0.02
NZL 0.94 0.00 0.87 0.01 0.90 0.00 0.84 0.01 0.42 0.02 0.53 0.02 0.51 0.02 0.61 0.02
USA 0.93 0.00 0.87 0.01 0.90 0.00 0.85 0.01 0.39 0.02 0.53 0.02 0.46 0.02 0.56 0.02
  1. The subsample of students who had a total RT lower than 3000 s is composed of 86.30% (first session) and 92.30% (second session) of the students of the total sample