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Table 5 Total, direct and indirect effects of immigrant status on occupational expectations (ISEI scores16-90)

From: Immigrant optimism or immigrant pragmatism? Linguistic capital, orientation towards science and occupational expectations of adolescent immigrants

  1. Immigrant (total effect) 2. Immigrant (direct effect) Path C in Fig. 1b 3. Immigrant (indirect effect) 4. Indirect effect due to instrumental motivation 5. Indirect effect due to enjoyment of science 6. Instrumental motivation to study science Path D in Fig. 1b 7. Enjoyment of science
Path E in Fig. 1b
8. % total effect explained 9. % total effect explained in PISA 2006
  Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE % %
Australia 7.14 0.51 6.60 0.50 0.54 0.10 0.25 0.06 0.29 0.06 1.67 0.21 1.37 0.21 8% 16%
Austria 9.24 0.84 8.90 0.84 0.34 0.11 0.03 0.04 0.31 0.12 0.30 0.29 0.88 0.33 4% 4%
Belgium 7.81 0.93 7.19 0.94 0.62 0.14 0.07 0.07 0.55 0.14 0.36 0.34 1.87 0.38 8% 24%
Canada 8.74 0.44 8.00 0.44 0.74 0.10 0.39 0.06 0.35 0.06 2.07 0.20 1.58 0.17 8% 16%
Denmark 14.31 0.88 13.83 0.91 0.48 0.18 0.14 0.11 0.34 0.14 0.48 0.37 0.91 0.34 3% 8%
France 11.29 0.80 10.56 0.83 0.73 0.16 0.24 0.09 0.49 0.16 0.89 0.32 1.65 0.39 6% 7%
Germany 10.59 0.92 10.45 0.92 0.14 0.08 0.00 0.02 0.14 0.08 0.06 0.44 0.74 0.40 0% 3%
Great Britain 7.67 0.68 6.78 0.70 0.89 0.14 0.59 0.11 0.30 0.11 2.20 0.27 0.86 0.32 12% 10%
Greece − 0.47 1.06 − 0.69 1.07 0.23 0.08 0.00 0.04 0.23 0.08 0.01 0.31 1.27 0.33 na na
Ireland 6.30 0.75 6.01 0.73 0.29 0.10 0.01 0.03 0.28 0.09 0.69 0.29 1.33 0.32 5% 30%
Israel − 0.79 0.68 − 0.48 0.66 − 0.31 0.18 − 0.19 0.10 − 0.12 0.10 1.95 0.23 1.98 0.25 na 1%
Luxembourg 3.64 0.58 3.57 0.58 0.07 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.29 0.71 0.28 2% 8%
Netherlands 13.93 1.27 13.92 1.28 0.01 0.11 0.00 0.05 0.01 0.12 0.01 0.29 0.02 0.31 0% 7%
New Zealand 7.54 0.63 6.72 0.63 0.82 0.16 0.42 0.10 0.40 0.14 1.66 0.37 1.13 0.36 11% 23%
Norway 11.83 0.92 10.68 0.94 1.15 0.18 0.50 0.12 0.65 0.15 1.78 0.31 1.45 0.25 10% 20%
Spain 6.27 0.76 5.90 0.75 0.37 0.10 0.18 0.07 0.19 0.08 1.37 0.23 0.55 0.23 6% 30%
Sweden 15.21 0.78 13.92 0.78 1.29 0.21 0.17 0.11 1.12 0.19 0.56 0.33 2.01 0.28 8% 23%
Switzerland 8.23 0.75 7.91 0.75 0.33 0.10 0.02 0.03 0.31 0.09 0.70 0.37 1.87 0.31 4% 6%
United States 5.81 0.66 5.32 0.66 0.49 0.09 0.31 0.07 0.19 0.06 1.66 0.27 1.21 0.27 8% 14%
  1. Paths C, D, E from Fig. 1b. Control variables not reported to conserve space A. Estimates with BRR weights. PISA 2015 unless otherwise indicated
  2. Coefficients in bold are significantly different from zero at p = 0.05, Coeff denotes unstandardized coefficients, SE denotes standard errors
  3. A The full model estimating direct effects of immigrant status and Table 5 analyses for 2006 are in Appendices S1 and S2 respectively. Estimates for control variables in the total effect models for 2015 are in Additional file 1: Appendix S1