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Table 4 Enjoyment of science

From: Immigrant optimism or immigrant pragmatism? Linguistic capital, orientation towards science and occupational expectations of adolescent immigrants

  Immigrant Path B in Fig. 1b Female Economic, social, and cultural status of family Parents work in science Academic achievement: science Vocational program (Constant) R Squared  
  Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE N
Australia 0.21 0.03 − 0.14 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.08 0.02 0.42 0.01 − 0.09 0.03 − 2.0 0.16 14530
Austria 0.34 0.05 − 0.15 0.04 0.14 0.03 naA   0.39 0.02 − 0.15 0.06 − 2.2 0.14 7007
Belgium 0.30 0.05 − 0.13 0.04 0.00 0.03 0.11 0.04 0.37 0.03 − 0.21 0.06 − 1.7 0.14 3976
Canada 0.22 0.03 − 0.13 0.02 0.08 0.02 0.09 0.03 0.38 0.01 na   − 1.7 0.13 20043
Denmark 0.39 0.04 − 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.06 0.43 0.02 na   − 2.1 0.12 7161
France 0.30 0.05 − 0.29 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.07 0.03 0.37 0.02 − 0.13 0.05 − 1.8 0.16 6108
Germany 0.19 0.05 − 0.35 0.03 0.10 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.39 0.03 − 0.26 0.14 − 2.1 0.15 6504
Great Britain 0.35 0.05 − 0.17 0.02 0.07 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.34 0.02 − 0.04 0.09 − 1.6 0.13 14157
Greece 0.18 0.05 − 0.14 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.40 0.02 − 0.01 0.06 − 1.6 0.12 5532
Ireland 0.21 0.05 − 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.06 0.04 0.48 0.02 − 0.34 0.18 − 2.2 0.16 5741
Israel − 0.04 0.06 − 0.04 0.04 − 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.29 0.03 na   − 1.3 0.06 6598
Luxembourg 0.10 0.04 − 0.11 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.38 0.02 − 0.11 0.04 − 1.8 0.12 5299
Netherlands 0.40 0.05 − 0.22 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.11 0.04 0.42 0.02 0.26 0.04 − 2.7 0.14 5385
New Zealand 0.36 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.07 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.36 0.02 na   − 1.8 0.15 4520
Norway 0.46 0.06 − 0.22 0.03 0.09 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.48 0.02 na   − 2.3 0.17 5456
Spain 0.34 0.05 − 0.07 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.14 0.03 0.47 0.02 0.26 0.16 − 2.3 0.15 6736
Sweden 0.56 0.05 − 0.20 0.04 0.09 0.03 0.08 0.04 0.45 0.02 na   − 2.2 0.16 5458
Switzerland 0.16 0.04 − 0.15 0.03 0.10 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.40 0.02 − 0.17 0.05 − 2.0 0.14 5860
United States 0.15 0.03 − 0.18 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.09 0.04 0.29 0.02 na   − 1.2 0.09 5712
  1. Path B from Fig. 1b plus control variables. Estimates with BRR weights. PISA 2015
  2. Coefficients in bold are significantly different from zero at p = 0.05, Coeff denotes unstandardized coefficients, SE denotes standard error
  3. na – see note under Table 2, naA information on parental work in science is not available in Austria where parental occupation was reported at one-digit ISCO level. In some countries PISA participants are already sorted into general and vocational streams or programs which affects their occupational expectations. Results from models that do not control for vocational education are in Additional file 1: Appendix S3. In this instance, they are comparable. Paths B coefficients are identical in Fig. 1b and c