Skip to main content

Table 2 Occupational expectations (ISEI scores ranging from 16 to 90) of immigrant students with different linguistic capitals: unstandardized coefficients from regressions with balanced repeat replicate weights

From: Immigrant optimism or immigrant pragmatism? Linguistic capital, orientation towards science and occupational expectations of adolescent immigrants

  Migrants speak different language home & school Migrants speak same language home & school Female Economic, social, and cultural status of family Academic achievement: science Vocational program (Constant) R Squared  
Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE N
Australia 9.9 0.7 5.4 0.6 7.1 0.4 3.8 0.3 6.5 0.20 − 4.2 0.7 24.7 0.22 14530
Austria 10.0 1.0 7.6 1.5 5.2 0.7 3.8 0.4 6.7 0.43 − 11.6 0.8 30.1 0.27 7007
Belgium 9.5 1.2 6.3 1.2 6.8 0.8 2.2 0.4 7.8 0.52 − 14.2 1.5 22.9 0.37 3976
Canada 9.7 0.5 7.9 0.5 8.3 0.4 4.1 0.2 5.3 0.22 na   30.7 0.22 20043
Switzerland 9.5 1.0 6.3 0.9 6.2 0.7 5.4 0.4 8.4 0.48 − 5.6 1.8 10.2 0.25 5860
Germany 11.3 1.0 10.3 1.8 5.2 0.6 5.6 0.4 7.6 0.33 − 7.8 2.0 13.5 0.25 6504
Denmark 13.8 1.6 15.0 1.2 7.4 1.0 5.0 0.5 6.9 0.34 na   22.1 0.20 7161
Spain 5.9 1.1 6.7 1.1 8.0 0.5 3.0 0.2 7.0 0.36 − 9.8 3.1 29.0 0.22 6736
France 11.4 1.1 11.5 0.9 4.8 0.6 4.5 0.4 7.8 0.34 − 11.6 0.9 20.0 0.35 6108
Great Britain 7.1 1.2 8.0 1.0 4.4 0.5 2.8 0.3 5.7 0.23 − 2.1 1.5 33.4 0.17 14157
Greece − 3.1 1.8 1.1 1.2 7.6 0.6 2.6 0.3 5.7 0.36 − 8.2 0.8 38.2 0.25 5532
Ireland 7.5 0.9 5.1 1.0 5.1 0.6 2.9 0.3 6.8 0.36 − 13.0 3.4 28.0 0.18 5741
Israel − 1.6 1.1 0.3 0.9 5.5 0.6 0.6 0.3 2.6 0.28 na   55.0 0.06 6598
Luxembourg 4.3 0.7 2.1 0.9 4.1 0.5 3.2 0.4 9.1 0.36 − 4.9 0.7 14.4 0.28 5299
Netherlands 14.1 1.5 13.6 1.5 2.1 0.7 3.8 0.4 5.5 0.44 − 9.9 0.8 30.5 0.25 5385
Norway 14.2 1.2 9.0 1.2 8.9 0.5 6.1 0.6 6.4 0.37 na   22.7 0.22 5456
New Zealand 9.4 0.8 6.5 0.9 7.4 0.6 3.3 0.4 5.7 0.35 na   28.5 0.21 4520
Sweden 15.8 1.0 13.7 1.4 8.3 0.6 5.0 0.4 6.5 0.26 na   20.5 0.23 5458
United States 6.3 0.7 4.8 0.9 7.2 0.6 2.4 0.3 3.9 0.32 na   43.2 0.12 5712
  1. Non-immigrants are the reference category. Data from PISA 2015
  2. Coefficients in bold are significantly different from zero at p = 0.05, Coeff denotes unstandardized coefficient, SE denotes standard error
  3. na—In some countries PISA participants are already sorted into general and vocational streams or programs which affects their occupational expectations, so the optimal strategy is to control for this in countries where students are already differentiated into such streams or programs. Results from models that do not control for vocational education are in Additional file 1: Appendix S3. In this instance, the results are comparable