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Table 1 Descriptive statistics with imputed and standardised data

From: Classroom, media and church: explaining the achievement differences in civic knowledge in the bilingual school system of Estonia

Statistic Mean St. Dev Min Max Skewness Kurtosis
Dependent variable: Civic knowledge score
  549.56 77.76 292.43 781.25 − 0.17 − 0.21
School level variable (language at school = Estonian)
 ITLANG (Estonian = 1) 0.75 0.43 0.00 1.00 − 1.14 − 0.69
Student background characteristics
 Gender* 0.51 0.50 0.00 1.00   
 HISEI 0.00 1.00 − 1.99 2.88 0.36 − 0.43
 HISCED*    1.00 5.00   
 HOMLIT* (books at home)    1.00 5.00   
 IMMIG*    1.00 3.00   
 TLANG* (test = home) 0.95 0.22 0.00 1.00   
Student involvement
 SINT* (interest in social issues)    1.00 4.00   
 SCHPART (participation in school) 0.00 1.00 − 1.82 3.18 0.17 0.34
Changed learning paradigm
 OPDISC (openness to class discussion) 0.00 1.00 − 3.81 3.33 − 0.05 1.97
Trust in media
 TRUST_C* (IS3G26G) (TV, radio, newspapers)    1.00 4.00   
 TRUST_SM* (IS3G26H) (twitter, blogs, YouTube)    1.00 4.00   
Influence of religion in the society
 RELINF 0.00 1.00 − 1.69 3.28 − 0.19 − 0.42
  1. All variables have 2857 observations, *indicates categorical variables