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Table 2 Basic statistics of the analytical sample

From: On the comparability of adults with low literacy across LEO, PIAAC, and NEPS. Methodological considerations and empirical evidence

  Full sample Low-literate sample Literate sample
95% 95% 95%
%/M (SD) SE LL UL %/M (SD) SE LL UL %/M (SD) SE LL UL
Literacy in %
 LEO 100.00 14.69 0.57 13.57 15.81 85.31 0.57 84.19 86.43
 PIAAC 100.00 17.65 0.84 15.96 19.35 82.35 0.84 80.65 84.04
 NEPS 100.00 13.69 0.64 12.49 15.00 86.30 0.64 85.00 87.51
Male in %
 LEO 50.19 0.71 48.78 51.59 60.03 1.99 56.11 63.96 48.49 0.79 46.93 50.04
 PIAAC 50.51 0.20 50.11 50.90 47.78 2.53 42.52 53.04 51.09 0.58 49.90 52.28
 NEPS 52.30 0.85 50.63 53.96 59.07 2.51 54.07 63.89 51.23 0.90 49.46 52.99
Age in M (SD)
 LEO 44.07 (11.04) 0.15 43.77 44.37 44.73 (11.02) 0.42 43.89 45.56 43.96 (11.04) 0.17 43.63 44.28
 PIAAC 44.44 (11.10) 0.08 44.28 44.59 46.86 (10.89) 0.53 45.78 47.94 43.91 (11.07) 0.13 43.64 44.19
 NEPS 46.66 (10.68) 0.18 46.30 47.02 48.98 (9.95) 0.61 47.78 50.17 46.29 (10.72) 0.18 45.92 46.66
Non-German in %
 LEO 14.85 0.58 13.72 15.98 42.67 3.02 36.08 49.25 10.06 0.64 8.76 11.36
 PIAAC 12.43 0.56 11.31 13.55 27.48 2.06 23.34 31.61 9.20 0.58 8.04 10.36
 NEPS 12.55 0.70 11.24 13.99 25.81 2.51 21.19 31.04 10.44 0.69 9.16 11.88
No edu. attainment (ISCED 1 and below) in %
 LEO 3.08 0.23 2.62 3.53 14.41 1.38 11.69 17.14 1.13 0.15 0.82 1.43
 PIAAC 3.03 0.32 2.39 3.67 12.52 1.60 9.33 15.72 0.99 0.24 0.51 1.48
 NEPS 1.08 0.23 0.72 1.63 5.01 1.29 3.01 8.23 0.46 0.16 0.23 0.89
Low edu. attainment (ISCED 2) in %
 LEO 9.18 0.39 8.42 9.94 21.56 1.82 17.90 25.22 7.05 0.39 6.27 7.82
 PIAAC 6.94 0.46 6.02 7.87 17.73 2.12 13.44 22.03 4.63 0.47 3.69 5.57
 NEPS 9.59 0.63 8.43 10.91 22.86 2.51 18.30 28.16 7.49 0.59 6.41 8.73
Medium edu. attainment (ISCED 3/4) in %
 LEO 59.91 0.71 58.52 61.29 52.80 2.07 48.71 56.89 61.13 0.77 59.62 62.65
 PIAAC 55.66 0.80 54.07 57.25 59.00 2.49 54.00 63.99 54.95 0.79 53.37 56.52
 NEPS 50.76 0.85 49.09 52.43 57.50 2.62 52.28 62.55 49.69 0.90 47.93 51.45
High edu. attainment (ISCED 5/6) in %
 LEO 27.84 0.66 26.54 29.14 11.23 1.70 7.73 14.73 30.69 0.75 29.22 32.17
 PIAAC 34.37 0.66 33.05 35.68 10.75 1.31 8.13 13.37 39.43 0.75 37.93 40.93
 NEPS 38.56 0.81 36.99 40.16 14.63 1.74 11.53 18.37 42.36 0.87 40.66 44.08
Employed in %
 LEO 71.68 0.58 70.54 72.83 59.58 2.08 55.41 63.75 73.77 0.64 72.52 75.01
 PIAAC 74.07 0.73 72.61 75.53 60.44 2.26 55.90 64.98 76.99 0.84 75.31 78.67
 NEPS 80.55 0.70 79.14 81.88 63.99 2.46 59.03 68.67 83.18 0.70 81.76 84.50
Unemployed in %
 LEO 7.66 0.31 7.06 8.27 17.17 1.54 14.02 20.32 6.03 0.32 5.39 6.67
 PIAAC 5.48 0.40 4.68 6.29 10.29 1.48 7.33 13.24 4.45 0.42 3.61 5.30
 NEPS 6.59 0.48 5.71 7.59 19.36 2.12 15.53 23.87 4.56 0.42 3.80 5.47
Other employ. status in %
 LEO 20.65 0.52 19.64 21.67 23.25 1.66 19.92 26.58 20.21 0.57 19.08 21.33
 PIAAC 20.45 0.75 18.96 21.93 29.27 2.16 24.94 33.60 18.55 0.83 16.90 20.21
 NEPS 12.86 0.57 11.78 14.02 16.65 1.79 13.42 20.47 12.26 0.60 11.14 13.48
Occupational status (ISEI-08) in M (SD)
 LEO 46.17 (20.73) 0.38 45.44 46.91 32.51 (16.71) 1.07 30.37 34.65 48.07 (20.52) 0.39 47.30 48.84
 PIAAC 44.88 (20.91) 0.30 44.28 45.48 30.75 (14.35) 0.91 28.88 32.62 47.24 (20.90) 0.35 46.54 47.94
 NEPS 47.05 (21.04) 0.39 46.29 47.82 30.90 (14.21) 0.99 29.05 32.92 49.02 (20.71) 0.40 48.23 49.80
  1. Table shows the weighted distributions of the sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics in our three samples of respondents aged from 24 to 64 years across the surveys. The full analytic samples comprise of 7,438 (LEO), 4,335 (PIAAC), and 7,633 (NEPS) respondents. LL and UL indicate the lower and upper limits of a confidence interval, respectively