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Table 9 Time-on-task effects regarding students’ background characteristics in the Czech Republic, Denmark and Germany

From: The relationship between differences in students’ computer and information literacy and response times: an analysis of IEA-ICILS data

Student background characteristics Time-on-task effects in the countries
Czech Republic Denmarka Germanyb
 Girls Negative* Negative Negative*
 Boys Negative* Negative Negative
Socioeconomic background (books at home)
 Lower cultural capital Negative* Negative Negative
 Higher cultural capital Negative* Negative Negative*
Parental occupation (hisei)
 Low occupational status
(less than 40 points)
Negative* Negative Negative*
 Medium occupational status (40 to 59 points) Negative* Negative Negative
 High occupational status (60 points or more) Negative Positive Negative
Language spoken at home
 Test language Negative* Negative Negative*
 Other language Negative Negative Negative
Immigrant background
 No parent born abroad Negative* Negative Negative
 One parent born abroad Negative Negative Negative
 Both parents born abroad Negative Positive Negative*
  1. *Significant (p < 0.05)
  2. aDid not meet sample requirements
  3. b “Met guidelines for sampling participation rates only after replacement schools were included” (Fraillon et al. 2014, S. 112)