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Table 4 Alternative measures of the “parental education” component of socio-economic status

From: The measure of socio-economic status in PISA: a review and some suggested improvements

 Original measure (PARED)Alternative 1 (PARED1)Alternative 2 (PARED2)
Conversion of ISCED to years of educationNationalInternationalInternational
Filter on secondary educationNoNoYes
Validity (country-level evidence)
 Pearson correlation between implied share of tertiary-educated fathers and tertiary-educated 35–54-year-olds0.7770.7770.782
 Pearson correlation between implied share of tertiary-educated mothers and tertiary-educated 35–54-year-olds0.8580.8580.864
 Pearson correlation between share of students in the international top quintile of PARED and the share of students in the international top quintile of HOMEPOS0.4130.5710.579
 Pearson correlation between share of students in the international bottom quintile of PARED and the share of students in the international bottom quintile of HOMEPOS0.6820.6790.699
Student-level comparisons with original
 Number of non-missing observations463,196463,196460,826
 Number of missing observations13,65613,65616,026
 OECD mean13.813.613.5
 OECD standard deviation3.02.72.7
 Range (min, max)3–183–163–16
 Correlation with original measure in database1.000.980.94
Country-level comparisons with original
 Country means
  Pearson correlation with original1.000.920.94
  Spearman correlation with original1.000.850.85
  Mean absolute deviation with original0.000.400.44
  Max positive deviation and country0.000.79 (Turkey)0.69 (Turkey)
  Min negative deviation and country0.00− 1.8 (Iceland)− 1.9 (Iceland)
 Relationship with science performance (R2)
  OECD average0.0600.0590.066
  Pearson correlation with original1.000.990.97
  Spearman correlation with original1.000.990.96
  Mean absolute deviation with original0.000.0020.007
  Max positive deviation and country0.000.02 (Israel)0.02 (Jordan)
  Min negative deviation and country0.00− 0.01 (Poland)− 0.01 (Poland)
 Relationship with science performance (beta)
  OECD average9.19.79.9
  Pearson correlation with original1.000.940.94
  Spearman correlation with original1.000.950.95
  Mean absolute deviation with original0.000.901.11
  Max positive deviation and country0.003.9 (Bulgaria)4.3 (Bulgaria)
  Min negative deviation and country0.00− 2.5 (Australia)− 2.8 (Australia)
  1. A comparison based on PISA 2015 data (Public use files, excluding Albania, Spanish regions’ sample, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Puerto Rico)
  2. Country-level comparisons were conducted separately on each national sample. Only the OECD average and the country with the highest and lowest difference are included in this table