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Table 5 Weighted linear regression of the natural logarithm of the literacy score, Canada, 1994 IALS, 2003 ALL and 2012 PIAAC data combined (full model—with all control variables)

From: Are large surveys of adult literacy skills as comparable over time as we think?

VariablesTotal population—age-cohort (AC) full model
1994–2003–20122003–20121994–20031994–2012
β ln(literacy score)
Age group
 25–34 years old (Ref. Cat.)
 16–24 years old0.049***
[0.008]
0.046***
[0.005]
0.033*
[0.014]
0.048***
[0.012]
 35–44 years old− 0.032**
[0.011]
− 0.029***
[0.007]
− 0.024
[0.013]
− 0.034*
[0.015]
 45–54 years old− 0.073***
[0.015]
− 0.067***
[0.009]
− 0.045
[0.031]
− 0.078***
[0.016]
 55–64 years old− 0.115***
[0.016]
− 0.102***
[0.012]
− 0.075*
[0.029]
− 0.126***
[0.023]
Cohort (birth year)
 1966–1974 (Ref. Cat)
 1930–19380.015
[0.060]
− 0.029
[0.063]
0.031
[0.063]
 1939–19470.049**
[0.014]
0.046***
[0.012]
0.005
[0.027]
0.054*
[0.020]
 1948–19560.051**
[0.017]
0.045***
[0.010]
0.024
[0.031]
0.059*
[0.023]
 1957–19650.014
[0.008]
0.008
[0.006]
0.004
[0.010]
0.021
[0.011]
 1975–1983− 0.014
[0.008]
− 0.020***
[0.005]
− 0.002
[0.008]
− 0.002
[0.014]
 1984–1992− 0.033***
[0.008]
− 0.027**
[0.008]
0.030*
[0.012]
− 0.056***
[0.014]
 1993+− 0.043***
[0.009]
− 0.037***
[0.009]
− 0.029*
[0.011]
Sex
 Male (Ref. Cat.)
 Female0.001
[0.006]
− 0.008*
[0.004]
0.010
[0.009]
− 0.001
[0.009]
Province of residence
 Ontario (Ref. Cat.)
 Québec− 0.016
[0.017]
− 0.006
[0.005]
− 0.013
[0.024]
− 0.024
[0.025]
 British Columbia0.005
[0.007]
0.011
[0.006]
0.014
[0.010]
− 0.009
[0.010]
 Alberta0.012
[0.007]
0.007
[0.005]
0.024*
[0.010]
0.010
[0.009]
 Manitoba & Saskatchewan0.008
[0.008]
0.001
[0.006]
0.024*
[0.011]
0.004
[0.010]
 Atlantic Provinces− 0.030***
[0.007]
− 0.025***
[0.005]
− 0.027*
[0.010]
− 0.035***
[0.009]
Type of region
 Urban (Ref. Cat.)
 Rural0.006
[0.005]
0.010*
[0.004]
0.003
[0.008]
0.002
[0.008]
 Missing information− 0.030
[0.018]
− 0.022
[0.017]
− 0.025
[0.019]
Highest level of education
 High school diploma or post-secondary non-university diploma (Ref. Cat.)
 Less than high school− 0.145***
[0.009]
− 0.130***
[0.005]
− 0.153***
[0.011]
− 0.158***
[0.012]
 University diploma0.087***
[0.009]
0.087***
[0.004]
0.083***
[0.014]
0.089***
[0.014]
 Missing information− 0.031
[0.036]
− 0.038
[0.035]
− 0.036
[0.036]
Mother tongue and language spoken at home
 Mother tongue: English (EN) (Ref. Cat.) 
 Mother tongue: French (FR)− 0.023
[0.012]
− 0.028***
[0.004]
− 0.026
[0.017]
− 0.015
[0.019]
 Mother tongue: other/home language: EN or FR− 0.015
[0.012]
− 0.010
[0.007]
− 0.017
[0.018]
− 0.016
[0.015]
 Mother tongue: other/home language: other− 0.186***
[0.029]
− 0.114***
[0.010]
− 0.219***
[0.037]
− 0.207***
[0.041]
Mother’s level of education
 Less than high school (Ref. Cat.)
 High school diploma or post-secondary non-university diploma0.038***
[0.005]
0.041***
[0.004]
0.041***
[0.007]
0.035***
[0.007]
 University diploma0.043***
[0.006]
0.065***
[0.005]
0.034***
[0.009]
0.031**
[0.010]
 Missing information− 0.031*
[0.014]
− 0.049**
[0.015]
− 0.021
[0.016]
− 0.023
[0.016]
Practice of literacy activities at home
 Weekly or daily (Ref. Cat.)
 Less than once a week− 0.057***
[0.007]
− 0.048***
[0.003]
− 0.064***
[0.012]
− 0.062***
[0.011]
Labour force status and literacy skill use at work
 Active: weekly or daily use of skill at work (Ref. cat.)
 Active: use of skill at work less than once a week− 0.045***
[0.005]
− 0.055***
[0.004]
− 0.044***
[0.009]
− 0.045***
[0.008]
 Inactive− 0.070***
[0.009]
− 0.078***
[0.006]
− 0.070***
[0.012]
− 0.064***
[0.013]
Immigration status
 Native-born Canadian (Ref. Cat.)
 Foreign-born Canadian− 0.049***
[0.010]
− 0.069***
[0.006]
− 0.046***
[0.012]
− 0.040**
[0.014]
Constant5.720***
[0.014]
5.709***
[0.008]
5.729***
[0.018]
5.726***
[0.021]
Sample size (n)41,36238,97920,64225,099
Adjusted R20.3920.3520.4310.404
  1. ***p ≤ 0.001; **p ≤ 0.01; *p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.1. Robust standard errors in brackets