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Table 1 Gender gaps in percent of group membership related to mathematics achievement, grade 4

From: Trends in gender gaps: using 20 years of evidence from TIMSS

  1. Positive gap values and red bars indicate higher relative percentages of girls in the group. In order to enable readers to correctly interpret Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, please see the following interpretation example for Table 1: “In Australia, the proportion of male students in the group of the twenty percent highest achievers in all cycles is higher than the proportion of female students in that group. This disproportional group allocation is significant in 2007, 2011 and 2015. In the group of the twenty percent lowest achievers however, both genders are equally represented in all cycles.”
  2. * Significant gap (p < 0.05)