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Table 2 Descriptive statistics, three generations, PISA 2012

From: Generational status, immigrant concentration and academic achievement: comparing first and second-generation immigrants with third-plus generation students

  First generation Second-generation Third-plus generation
Mean (st.dev.),  % Mean (st.dev.),  % Mean (st.dev.),  %
N 224 (160,000) 457 (336,480) 3019 (2,111,206)
Share in total 0.06 0.13 0.81
PISA Math score 464 (99) 489 (92) 492 (87)
Student characteristics
 Female 0.54 (0.50) 0.48 (0.50) 0.50 (0.50)
 White 0.08 (0.27) 0.06 (0.24) 0.67 (0.47)
 Black 0.11 (0.31) 0.08 (0.27) 0.13 (0.34)
 Hispanic 0.61 (0.49) 0.62 (0.49) 0.12 (0.32)
 Asian 0.18 (0.38) 0.22 (0.42) 0.01 (0.09)
 Other race 0.03 (0.16) 0.01 (0.12) 0.08 (0.27)
 Parental education—less than high school 0.26 (0.44) 0.30 (0.46) 0.03 (0.17)
 Parental education—high school and some college 0.42 (0.49) 0.43 (0.50) 0.47 (0.50)
 Parental education—college degree 0.32 (0.47) 0.28 (0.45) 0.50 (0.50)
 Wealth 0.06 (0.99) 0.38 (1.01) 0.63 (1.02)
 Speak language other than English at home 0.72 (0.45) 0.51 (0.50) 0.02 (0.14)
 Grade 10 0.60 (0.49) 0.67 (0.47) 0.74 (0.44)
School characteristics
 Public school 0.99 (0.08) 0.96 (0.20) 0.94 (0.24)
 Urban school 0.56 (0.50) 0.63 (0.48) 0.32 (0.47)
 Suburban school 0.34 (0.47) 0.34 (0.47) 0.38 (0.49)
 Rural school 0.10 (0.04) 0.04 (0.18) 0.30 (0.46)
 School size 1781 (951) 1884 (1041) 1309 (778)
 Class size 27.6 (4.8) 29.0 (5.5) 25.8 (5.0)
 Share of FRL eligible students greater than 75% 0.35 (0.48) 0.42 (0.49) 0.14 (0.34)
 Student–mathematics teacher ratio 115 (36.3) 125 (33.8) 125 (42.0)
 Share of mathematics teachers with a bachelor or masters degree in mathematics 0.61 (0.38) 0.65 (0.47) 0.67 (0.37)
 No mathematics teacher shortage 0.59 (0.49) 0.66 (0.47) 0.75 (0.44)
 Share of dropouts greater than 10% 0.29 (0.45) 0.26 (0.44) 0.24 (0.43)
 Student-related aspects of school climate 23.1 (4.08) 23.7 (4.37) 23.8 (3.50)