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Table 7 Results direct relation between background characteristics and achievement

From: Instructional quality: catalyst or pitfall in educational systems’ aim for high achievement and equity? An answer based on multilevel SEM analyses of TIMSS 2015 data in Flanders (Belgium), Germany, and Norway

  Flanders Germany Norway
b b b
Model within
 MATH on SES .20*** .32*** .23***
 MATH on LANG .12*** .08*** .08***
Model fit
Loglikelihood (df) − 21,350.84 (4) − 14,435.61 (4) − 17,130.67 (4)
  1. *** p < .001