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Table 5 Direct association with parental cognitive involvement: unstandardised regression coefficients

From: Socio-economic gaps in subject interest: the mediating role of parental cognitive involvement

Education system (1) Student reading interest (2) Student mathematics interest
Austria 0.14 * 0.08 *
Azerbaijan 0.08 * 0.04 *
Canada (Quebec) 0.10 * 0.08 *
Chinese Taipei 0.09 * 0.07 *
Croatia 0.13 * 0.07 *
Czech Republic 0.06 * 0.07 *
Finland 0.17 * 0.08 *
Georgia 0.06 * 0.02  
Hong Kong 0.09 * 0.11 *
Hungary 0.12 * 0.10 *
Iran 0.04 * 0.05 *
Ireland 0.07 * 0.08 *
Italy 0.10 * 0.07 *
Lithuania 0.08 * 0.11 *
Malta 0.14 * 0.06 *
Norway 0.07 * 0.05  
Poland 0.17 * 0.07 *
Portugal 0.10 * 0.04  
Romania 0.07 * 0.08 *
Russian Federation 0.06 * 0.02  
Singapore 0.09 * 0.00  
Slovak Republic 0.10 * 0.08 *
Slovenia 0.11 * 0.09 *
Spain 0.08 * 0.06 *
Sweden 0.13 * 0.08 *
United Arab Emirates 0.08 * 0.06 *
Abu Dhabi 0.10 * 0.07 *
Dubai 0.07 * 0.07 *
  1. (1) Regression of student interest in reading on SES, parental reading involvement and confounders. (2) Regression of student interest in mathematics on SES, parental numeracy involvement and confounders. Parental involvement coefficients are reported
  2. * Statistically significant (p < 0.05)