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Table 2 Mean and standard deviations

From: Socio-economic gaps in subject interest: the mediating role of parental cognitive involvement

  Student reading interest Student mathematics interest Family SES Parental literacy cognitive involvement Parental numeracy cognitive involvement Pre-school attendance Parents like reading scale Number of books Number of children’s books
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Austria 10.04 2.20 9.63 2.11 0.03 0.73 10.09 1.72 10.53 1.59 0.00 0.49 0.06 2.15 0.05 1.08 0.05 1.03
Azerbaijan 10.45 1.62 9.92 1.43 − 0.77 1.04 9.53 1.78 9.22 1.79 0.00 0.92 0.06 1.49 0.06 0.97 0.02 0.79
Canada (Quebec) 10.33 2.03 9.71 1.98 0.58 0.70 10.37 1.87 10.51 1.77 0.00 0.73 0.06 1.97 0.03 1.12 0.03 1.02
Chinese Taipei 9.83 1.98 9.16 2.21 − 0.02 0.86 8.82 1.86 9.33 2.13 0.01 0.58 0.02 1.66 0.03 1.20 0.04 1.29
Croatia 9.29 2.13 9.02 2.33 − 0.10 0.81 10.77 1.76 10.55 1.69 0.02 0.97 0.05 2.09 0.02 1.04 0.01 0.98
Czech Republic 10.05 2.11 9.78 1.93 0.08 0.76 10.34 1.65 11.02 1.55 0.01 0.58 0.03 1.93 0.03 1.06 0.03 0.97
Finland 9.77 2.16 9.24 2.14 0.53 0.77 9.86 1.51 9.56 1.42 0.00 0.72 0.06 2.04 0.03 1.07 0.03 0.97
Georgia 10.94 1.95 11.36 1.49 − 0.07 0.97 10.82 1.83 9.71 1.99 − 0.01 0.94 0.06 1.64 0.06 1.05 0.02 1.00
Hong Kong 9.78 1.85 9.92 1.96 − 0.40 0.95 8.73 1.71 9.18 1.91 0.01 0.48 0.02 1.52 0.02 1.09 0.02 1.11
Hungary 9.87 2.29 9.99 2.02 − 0.19 1.08 10.35 1.61 11.25 1.63 0.01 0.33 0.06 1.92 0.05 1.08 0.05 1.06
Iran 10.63 1.75 10.71 1.78 − 1.06 1.21 8.97 1.82 9.39 1.90 − 0.01 0.77 0.04 1.61 0.00 1.01 0.00 0.93
Ireland 10.45 2.26 9.52 2.09 0.27 0.87 10.92 2.03 10.99 1.92 0.01 0.70 0.09 2.10 0.06 1.12 0.07 1.08
Italy 9.78 1.96 10.03 1.92 − 0.30 0.87 10.55 1.73 10.35 1.68 0.02 0.50 0.05 1.72 0.04 1.12 0.03 1.01
Lithuania 10.07 1.92 10.38 1.85 0.09 0.90 10.14 1.67 10.01 1.59 0.01 0.91 0.05 1.92 0.03 1.09 0.02 1.00
Malta 10.33 2.25 10.16 2.04 − 0.21 0.94 10.57 1.91 10.53 1.92 0.00 0.36 0.11 2.09 0.07 1.16 0.07 0.95
Norway 9.81 1.89 10.27 2.00 0.74 0.72 10.16 1.75 9.87 1.60 0.02 0.61 0.10 2.04 0.07 1.05 0.05 0.98
Poland 9.75 2.20 10.50 1.88 − 0.14 1.02 10.51 1.74 10.85 1.61 0.02 0.98 0.05 1.98 0.04 1.05 0.04 1.00
Portugal 11.01 1.81 10.38 1.70 − 0.06 1.01 10.20 1.85 10.03 1.77 0.01 0.82 0.04 1.58 0.05 1.09 0.05 1.04
Romania 10.54 2.16 10.58 1.78 − 0.46 1.09 10.37 2.37 10.16 2.35 0.02 0.63 0.03 1.80 0.03 1.03 0.03 0.95
Russian Federation 9.99 1.87 10.44 1.70 0.24 0.83 11.16 1.93 10.95 1.83 0.01 0.91 0.03 1.71 0.01 1.02 0.00 1.00
Singapore 9.82 1.79 9.94 2.05 0.20 0.87 9.50 2.08 9.75 2.13 0.01 0.54 0.04 1.70 0.02 1.13 0.02 1.09
Slovak Republic 9.69 2.11 9.83 1.95 − 0.12 0.93 10.55 1.80 11.09 1.77 0.03 0.62 0.04 1.81 0.03 1.01 0.03 0.94
Slovenia 10.03 2.02 9.80 2.00 0.10 0.77 10.69 1.78 10.48 1.65 0.01 0.85 0.03 1.64 0.03 1.07 0.03 1.03
Spain 10.32 2.07 10.02 1.97 0.07 0.98 10.52 1.75 10.09 1.70 0.01 0.63 0.07 2.02 0.06 1.05 0.06 1.00
Sweden 9.65 1.95 9.87 1.94 0.50 0.78 10.03 1.78 9.47 1.70 0.03 0.60 0.12 2.01 0.06 1.05 0.06 1.00
United Arab Emirates 10.14 1.76 10.45 1.87 0.27 0.93 9.79 1.80 10.08 1.91 − 0.01 0.90 0.04 1.58 0.03 1.09 0.01 0.95
Abu Dhabi 10.06 1.68 10.45 1.87 0.14 0.96 9.60 1.72 9.90 1.85 − 0.02 0.88 0.05 1.50 0.03 1.09 0.01 0.91
Dubai 10.27 1.87 10.42 1.89 0.50 0.84 10.06 1.87 10.28 1.94 − 0.01 0.91 0.04 1.68 0.02 1.09 0.02 1.01