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Fig. 1 | Large-scale Assessments in Education

Fig. 1

From: School students’ beliefs about abilities and perspective-taking over time

Fig. 1

Study 1: Model scheme of the structure equation model with cross-lags outlined over the measurement points T1 = Time 1, T2 = Time 2 and T3 = Time 3. Girls’ (before the slash)/boys’ (after the slash). ASC = academic self-concept (Quellenberg 2009) and BPT = belief about one’s own perspective-taking (Davis 1980) were specified as latent variables (indicators and residuals are not depicted, see the Additional file 1 for the statistical model). Covariates were included as manifest variables, i.e., migration = ethnic background (out of Germany coded as 1, German background coded as 0), SES = socio-economic status, type of school, school grades in literature class, and school grades in math class. See Table 2 for the path coefficients and standard errors. *p < .05

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