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Table 2 Summary of questionnaire items

From: The role of reading motivation, self-efficacy, and home influence in students’ literacy achievement: a preliminary examination of fourth graders in Abu Dhabi

Item N Reliability Mean Standard deviation
Student questionnaire
 Gender of student (ITSEX)
  Girl = 1, Boy = 2
    
 Intrinsic reading motivation (ASBR07_BCEF) 3908 .678 13.55 2.700
  I like talking about what I read with other people (reverse coded)    3.28 .986
  I would be happy if someone gave me a book as a present (reverse coded)    3.53 .874
  I would like to have more time for reading (reverse coded)    3.25 1.010
  I enjoy reading (reverse coded)    3.48 .910
 Student self-efficacy in reading (ASBR08_CEG) 3892 .662 8.37 2.801
  Reading is harder for me than for many of my classmates    2.86 1.225
  I have trouble reading stories with difficult words    2.53 1.188
  Reading is harder for me than any other subject    2.98 1.214
 Extrinsic reading motivation (ASBR09_ABCDEF) 3890 .763 21.98 2.949
  I like to read things that make me think (reverse coded)    3.63 .765
  It is important to be a good reader (reverse coded)    3.68 .699
  My parents like it when I read (reverse coded)    3.69 .695
  I learn a lot from reading (reverse coded)    3.69 .691
  I need to read well for my future (reverse coded)    3.71 .701
  I like it when a book helps me imagine other worlds (reverse coded)    3.59 .802
Home questionnaire
 Literacy level when starting school (ASBH06_ABCDE) 3730 .906 15.45 3.785
  Recognize most of the letters of the alphabet (reverse coded)    3.44 .761
  Read some words (reverse coded)    3.05 .897
  Read sentences (reverse coded)    2.62 1.002
  Write letters of the alphabet (reverse coded)    3.38 .805
  Write some words (reverse coded)    2.96 .952
 Parent involvement in learning (ASBH09_ABCDEFGH) 3722 .843 28.84 3.642
  Discuss my child’s schoolwork with him/her (reverse coded)    3.73 .558
  Help my child with his/her schoolwork (reverse coded)    3.57 .700
  Make sure my child sets aside time to do his/her homework (reverse coded)    3.74 .603
  Ask my child what he/she learned in school (reverse coded)    3.73 .558
  Check if my child has done his/her homework (reverse coded)    3.81 .515
  Help my child practice his/her reading (reverse coded)    3.42 .775
  Help my child practice his/her math skills (reverse coded)    3.39 .768
  Talk with my child about what he/she is reading (reverse coded)    3.44 .743
 Weekly time parent spent on reading at home (ASBH11)
  Less than 1 h = 1, 1–5 h = 2, 6–10 h = 3, more than 10 h = 4
3774   2.14 .956
 Number of books at home (ASBH14)
  0–10 = 1, 11–25 = 2, 26–100 = 3, 101–200 = 4, more than 200 = 5
3812   2.31 1.193
 Parent expectation of child’s education (ASBH18)
  Some secondary school = 1, secondary school = 2, training certificate = 3, college diploma = 4, bachelor’s degree = 5, beyond bachelor’s degree = 6
3732   5.36 1.024