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Table 1 Factors employed in analyses, the number of categories corresponding to each factor and the reference group used in regression analyses (if appropriate)

From: How long is the shadow? The relationships of family background to selected adult outcomes: results from PIAAC

Factor name Number of categories Reference group
Age 3 45–54
Gender 2 Male
Parental education 3 At least one parent with BA or BA+
Books in the home 3 101 books or more
Literacy and numeracy literacy and numeracy Scale scores
2
N/A
Score in level 2 or below
Educational Attainment 4 BA or BA+