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Table 1 Classification of PISA and TIMSS grade 8 items using the F/NF dichotomy, in percentages of items

From: The dependence on mathematical theory in TIMSS, PISA and TIMSS Advanced test items and its relation to student achievement

  PISA math 2012 (%) TIMSS grade 8 math 2011 (%)
Classified as F [using formula(s)] by at least 5 of 6 scorers 18.8 21.7
Opinions divided (4-2 or 3-3) 9.4 13.4
Classified as NF [not using formula(s)] by at least 5 of 6 scorers 71.8 65.0