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Table 4 Explanation of test-taking disengagement in problem solving (N = 10,367)

From: Conditioning factors of test-taking engagement in PIAAC: an exploratory IRT modelling approach considering person and item characteristics

Predictor Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE)
Intercept − 6.30*** (0.61) − 6.66*** (0.60) − 6.29*** (0.48) − 6.63*** (0.50)
Educational attainment
 High school    − 1.06*** (0.14)    − 1.07*** (0.14)
 Above high school    − 2.16*** (0.15)    − 2.16*** (0.15)
Language (test language not same as native language)    0.97*** (0.12)    0.96*** (0.12)
Score cognitive pre-test    − 1.26*** (0.06)    − 1.19*** (0.06)
Gender (female)    − 0.05 (0.09)    − 0.05 (0.09)
Age group
 25–34    1.30*** (0.15)    1.30*** (0.15)
 35–54    1.55*** (0.13)    1.55*** (0.13)
 55 or more    2.25*** (0.15)    2.24*** (0.15)
Item difficulty      4.51*** (0.96) 4.54*** (1.24)
Item difficulty × score cognitive pre-test        − 0.40*** (0.08)
\(Var\left( {b_{0p} } \right)\) 10.88   11.02   10.89   11.04  
\(Var\left( {b_{0i} } \right)\) 4.80   5.06   3.08   3.24  
  1. SE standard error
  2. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001