Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 2 Explanation of test-taking disengagement in literacy (N = 14,039)

From: Conditioning factors of test-taking engagement in PIAAC: an exploratory IRT modelling approach considering person and item characteristics

Predictor Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE)
Intercept − 14.82*** (0.15) − 14.03*** (0.26) − 14.90*** (0.17) − 14.11*** (0.27)
Educational attainment
 High school    − 0.70** (0.21)    − 0.77*** (0.22)
 Above high school    − 1.35*** (0.23)    − 1.48*** (0.23)
Language (test language not same as native language)    0.73*** (0.18)    0.83*** (0.18)
Score cognitive pre-test    − 0.80*** (0.09)    − 0.86*** 0.09)
Gender (female)    − 0.01 (0.14)    0.02 (0.14)
Age group
 25–34    0.29 (0.24)    0.34 (0.24)
 35–54    0.27 (0.20)    0.30 (0.21)
 55 or more    0.22 (0.24)    0.24 (0.24)
Position (module 2)      1.27*** (0.14) 1.43*** (0.15)
Item difficulty      2.98*** (0.20) 3.00*** (0.20)
Item difficulty × score cognitive pre-test        − 0.07 (0.05)
\(Var\left( {b_{0p} } \right)\) 132.33   121.37   116.43   104.11  
\(Var\left( {b_{0i} } \right)\) 0.45   0.44   0.33   0.31  
  1. SE standard error
  2. p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001