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Table 4 LS and QR estimates of the effects of covariate on reading comprehension—fifth grade

From: Beyond the mean estimate: a quantile regression analysis of inequalities in educational outcomes using INVALSI survey data

  LS Reading comprehension—L5
QR
\(\theta = 0.1\) \(\theta = 0.25\) \(\theta = 0.5\) \(\theta = 0.75\) \(\theta = 0.9\) p value equiv.test
(Intercept) 198.06 150.92 171.60 198.76 224.45 245.66  
  (1.09) (1.89) (1.53) (1.43) (1.62) (1.80)  
Female 2.81 4.97 4.62 1.89 1.81 2.46 < 0.01
  (0.55) (0.89) (0.76) (0.63) (0.84) (1.02)  
Early enrolment −0.51 0.30 −1.13 −0.36 −2.22 −4.64 0.80
  (2.60) (3.73) (3.46) (3.92) (3.85) (5.14)  
Late enrolment −11.25 −14.39 −13.59 −12.26 −8.81 −4.39 < 0.05
  (1.98) (3.67) (2.28) (2.94) (3.34) (3.00)  
Kindergarten:yes 3.08 3.37 5.01 2.71 0.05 1.36 < 0.05
  (1.01) (1.77) (1.47) (1.32) (1.47) (1.72)  
Immigrant −11.15 −11.09 −12.03 −11.58 −10.07 −11.15 0.41
  (1.02) (1.51) (1.19) (1.68) (1.44) (2.30)  
Centre-Italy 0.48 −2.64 0.04 0.92 1.57 1.29 < 0.05
  (0.78) (1.08) (1.01) (0.91) (1.06) (1.25)  
South-Italy −5.77 −9.97 −8.55 −6.33 −3.04 −2.19 < 0.01
  (0.64) (1.17) (1.07) (0.75) (0.91) (1.07)  
ESCS 11.19 11.13 11.28 11.18 11.49 11.47 0.92
  (0.30) (0.49) (0.37) (0.38) (0.46) (0.58)  
  1. In Italic estimates with p < 0.05. Standard errors in parenthesis computed with non-clustered bootstrap estimation. In the last column the p value of the equivalence test (equiv.test) results