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Table 2 LS and QR estimates of the effects of covariate on reading comprehension in primary school—second grade

From: Beyond the mean estimate: a quantile regression analysis of inequalities in educational outcomes using INVALSI survey data

  LS Reading comprehension—L2
QR
\(\theta = 0.1\) \(\theta = 0.25\) \(\theta = 0.5\) \(\theta = 0.75\) \(\theta = 0.9\) p value equiv.test
(Intercept) 170.03 127.15 142.24 167.13 193.70 212.61  
  (2.08) (4.00) (3.41) (2.78) (3.10) (4.08)  
Female 3.73 4.73 3.40 3.23 3.72 8.52 < 0.01
  (0.64) (1.29) (0.91) (1.39) (1.72) (2.47)  
Early enrolment −5.20 −2.99 −3.20 −6.12 −6.44 −12.92 0.36
  (2.73) (5.31) (2.97 ) (3.67) (2.50) (4.46)  
Late enrolment −15.52 −26.60 −21.53 −15.24 −14.00 −9.92 < 0.01
  (2.53) (3.73) (3.44) (3.66) (3.54) (4.24)  
Kindergarten:yes 4.02 3.11 3.70 3.71 6.20 8.44 0.13
  (1.61) (3.20) (2.80) (2.12) (2.33) (3.38)  
Immigrant −13.96 −9.47 −14.46 −14.69 −14.89 −18.44 < 0.01
  (1.14) (1.94) (1.53) (1.87) (1.70) (1.66)  
Centre-Italy 1.02 0.01 −0.01 0.46 1.50 1.56 0.34
  (0.91) (1.41) (1.22) (1.41) (1.76) (2.05)  
South-Italy −3.24 −4.73 −3.70 −4.39 −3.90 −0.01 < 0.01
  (0.73) (1.36) (1.11) (1.36) (2.00) (1.25)  
Pared 1.96 1.56 2.16 2.20 2.07 2.00 < 0.01
  (0.07) (0.13) (0.11) (0.08) (0.13) (0.21)  
  1. In italics estimates with p < 0.05. Standard errors in parenthesis computed with non-clustered bootstrap estimation. In the last column the p value of the equivalence test (equiv.test) results