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Fig. 1 | Large-scale Assessments in Education

Fig. 1

From: A structural equation modeling approach for examining position effects in large-scale assessments

Fig. 1

The structural equation model for examining item position effects (Note \(\eta\) = Latent trait; \(\lambda_{1}\) to \(\lambda_{k}\) = factor loadings; \(\tau_{1}\) to \(\tau_{k}\) = item thresholds; \(p_{1}\) = positions of item 1 on the test; \(\beta_{1}\) = linear item position effect for item 1; \(\omega_{1}\) = interaction term between latent trait and positions of item 1)

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