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Table 5 Regression results for Model 3—additionally adjusting for occupational group, reading at home, and participation in training activities in the last 12 months.

From: Degrees of competency: the relationship between educational qualifications and adult skills across countries

  AT CA CZ DK EN/NIa EE FI BE FR DE IR
ISCED below 2 (Ref: ISCED 2) −9.7 −13.4 −51.6 −30.3 −20.3 −30.0 −9.2 −14.9 −21.2 −21.8 −18.2
ISCED 3 4 voc. 6.4 27.2 13.8 9.7 4.4 15.2 2.1 −0.3 9.2 8.7 18.7
ISCED 3 4 non-voc. 22.2 24.7 29.2 19.0 15.7 17.1 25.4 23.4 26.7 34.4 21.2
ISCED 5B 17.0 32.4 26.8 22.4 11.3 18.6 19.2 0.0 31.2 21.1 26.2
ISCED 5A BA 23.4 46.7 30.8 24.9 23.2 34.5 28.8 25.2 35.3 29.9 40.1
ISCED 5A MA 6 28.3 52.5 36.8 34.2 0.0 33.0 36.6 44.3 43.7 36.0 43.4
Age 31–35 (Ref: age 26–30) −3.4 −1.7 0.7 −6.7 0.3 −4.7 0.5 −1.5 −0.2 −4.3 0.8
Age 36–40 −2.7 −3.2 −6.0 −2.8 0.4 −7.2 −2.7 −7.2 −5.0 −2.1 1.7
Age 41–45 −7.3 −5.3 −10.4 −8.8 −1.7 −10.4 −10.8 −7.9 −10.5 −4.2 −0.6
Age 46–50 −13.2 −8.4 −11.2 −14.3 −5.3 −12.7 −13.5 −11.1 −13.1 −12.6 −7.0
Age 51–55 −14.6 −10.7 −17.7 −18.7 −2.9 −13.4 −20.8 −16.4 −14.0 −17.0 −2.1
Age 56–60 −19.3 −8.9 −12.4 −23.4 −4.0 −14.2 −28.7 −21.6 −15.2 −16.5 −6.2
Age 61–65 −22.0 −7.1 −12.0 −26.2 0.6 −9.4 −31.5 −19.2 −11.9 −21.4 0.2
Female −1.8 −4.1 −0.9 −2.6 −2.3 −2.1 −1.2 −4.0 −1.5 −1.9 −5.1
Native-born/foreign language (Ref: native born/native language) −15.9 −1.4 17.4 −11.1 −19.9 −1.5 −24.8 −11.2 −12.9 −5.9 15.2
Foreign-born/native language −4.3 −17.3 −23.8 3.2 −15.1 −14.3 −1.9 −5.4 −25.0 −5.7 −5.6
Foreign-born/foreign language −23.0 −31.4 −1.9 −45.2 −35.6 −11.6 −64.8 −53.2 −40.1 −26.1 −33.7
One parent ISCED 3 or 4 (Ref: both parents ISCED 2 or below) 0.0 4.6 2.6 0.6 7.0 −2.4 0.8 2.6 2.2 4.5 2.9
Both parents ISCED 3 or 4 4.7 4.5 2.3 −0.6 9.5 −0.5 1.9 6.9 3.6 7.8 8.8
One parent ISCED 5 or 6 2.3 4.9 0.8 2.6 9.1 −2.3 3.6 5.9 6.0 7.3 6.5
Both parents ISCED 5 or 6 0.7 5.9 1.7 7.3 16.1 5.3 8.5 8.9 6.5 7.8 8.0
Books in the home 6.5 6.4 5.5 5.8 7.3 7.1 4.3 4.3 4.7 5.5 5.6
Formal training in last 12 months 5.7 7.6 2.6 5.0 6.1 4.2 3.8 1.3 3.2 5.8 1.7
Reading at home 3.1 5.7 4.0 6.0 4.8 3.2 6.2 3.6 3.7 4.8 4.6
Skilled occupations (Ref: not currently working) 11.9 15.9 9.5 14.8 15.9 9.6 12.3 12.8 9.4 16.2 9.2
Semi-skilled white-collar occ. 2.8 2.6 7.3 10.1 6.1 4.1 11.1 8.2 7.0 7.4 6.6
Semi-skilled blue-collar occ. −0.2 0.0 0.3 1.3 5.1 1.6 6.5 0.5 0.4 3.3 4.9
Elementary occupations −4.8 −5.5 −9.9 0.0 −6.0 2.9 1.0 −5.3 −3.7 4.2 0.5
Constant 256.3 224.6 244.6 240.5 240.8 247.8 257.7 253.4 243.2 233.2 234.1
Adj. R2 0.33 0.41 0.26 0.42 0.37 0.26 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.37
  IT JP KO NL NO PL SK ES SE US
ISCED below 2 (Ref: ISCED 2) −21.8 24.8 −16.3 −21.7 −32.4 −7.9 −54.6 −18.7 −10.5 −0.6
ISCED 3 4 voc. 11.4 18.6 14.0 8.7 1.4 14.8 17.1 0.4 6.8 22.8
ISCED 3 4 non-voc. 16.2 15.7 12.1 33.0 16.0 21.2 26.4 12.9 12.9 21.3
ISCED 5B 0.0 23.9 19.7 19.2 16.3 0.0 0.0 13.7 23.4 33.5
ISCED 5A BA 19.1 37.0 29.0 30.8 20.0 30.5 27.9 21.3 28.8 42.9
ISCED 5A MA 6 21.7 45.5 38.2 42.6 26.5 36.7 33.0 33.1 33.3 52.9
Age 31–35 (Ref: age 26–30) −3.5 0.4 −3.7 −1.1 −2.0 −7.5 −0.1 0.1 −3.8 −3.8
Age 36–40 −2.0 −0.3 −4.9 −2.7 −3.5 −4.9 3.6 1.5 −4.7 −2.0
Age 41–45 −0.5 −2.6 −14.0 −1.2 −4.3 −5.1 −4.2 −2.4 −4.2 −4.6
Age 46–50 −1.6 −7.5 −16.7 −10.9 −7.5 −4.1 −1.8 −3.1 −8.2 −8.3
Age 51–55 −1.3 −13.6 −20.4 −17.0 −13.4 −9.7 −2.7 −11.4 −13.1 −5.5
Age 56–60 −6.3 −18.9 −17.5 −22.3 −21.8 −7.9 −1.5 −17.6 −17.3 −10.0
Age 61–65 −5.0 −29.4 −21.3 −27.2 −25.4 −9.4 3.2 −15.5 −21.5 −5.9
Female 2.2 0.8 −3.6 −4.7 −5.4 3.0 0.7 −4.6 −4.4 −0.8
Native-born/foreign language (Ref: native born/native language) −2.0 21.2 −6.2 −26.8 −13.9 −13.5 −7.3 −2.5 −6.5 −0.8
Foreign-born/native language −12.7 −78.9 −26.8 −27.4 −4.4 0.0 0.2 −21.0 −16.5 −7.6
Foreign-born/foreign language −26.3 −90.1 −52.8 −43.4 −46.5 0.0 6.3 −36.6 −60.3 −28.3
One parent ISCED 3 or 4 (Ref: both parents ISCED 2 or below) 5.3 4.3 3.3 3.0 3.1 2.5 6.3 0.2 1.7 7.4
Both parents ISCED 3 or 4 1.9 4.1 0.0 3.4 4.1 5.0 7.2 −2.1 4.8 17.8
One parent ISCED 5 or 6 5.1 4.0 1.9 −0.3 1.7 4.5 5.6 3.5 2.3 17.0
Both parents ISCED 5 or 6 −3.8 0.2 5.5 2.8 8.6 7.4 13.0 1.0 5.5 24.4
Books in the home at age 16 5.9 5.4 3.8 4.9 6.6 6.3 7.1 7.0 7.8 5.0
Formal training in last 12 months 5.7 1.9 5.8 1.1 1.6 4.8 7.2 3.6 −0.6 3.5
Reading at home 3.7 3.0 3.2 5.1 5.2 3.2 1.5 4.4 4.7 3.8
Skilled occupations (Ref: not currently working) 7.8 2.0 3.5 9.7 15.5 12.5 0.8 7.6 23.2 15.7
Semi-skilled white-collar occ. 4.2 −1.7 −0.5 7.9 3.7 3.7 1.3 3.2 16.1 4.8
Semi-skilled blue-collar occ. 0.5 −1.8 −1.4 0.9 3.5 −0.1 4.1 3.3 10.5 3.2
Elementary occupations −2.2 −8.0 −7.3 −9.3 −10.9 0.8 0.8 3.2 9.3 −2.9
Constant 238.2 274.0 257.6 260.9 252.8 233.5 241.8 240.8 249.9 215.3
Adj. R2 0.31 0.33 0.39 0.50 0.43 0.28 0.27 0.41 0.50 0.44
  1. aISCED 5A BA for England/Northern Ireland includes both BA and MA, as well as ISCED 6