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Table 1 Descriptive information at the country level, sample sizes and summary information for the selected variables for the period 1991–2001

From: Is computer availability at home causally related to reading achievement in grade 4? A longitudinal difference in differences approach to IEA data from 1991 to 2006

Country Study Sample V1. Read Ach V2. Computer at home V3. Borrow Books V4. Books at home V5. Girls V6. Cntry Lang
N Mean SD % Mean SD Mean SD % %
Greece RL 1991 3516 466 96 0 2.49 1.42 3.59 1.34 49 92
RL 2001 1109 507 91 37 2.70 1.37 3.94 1.27 48 91
Hungary RL 1991 3009 459 93 0 2.85 1.39 4.45 1.30 49 95
RL 2001 4707 475 97 52 2.71 1.25 4.22 1.40 50 97
Iceland RL 1991 3961 486 104 0 3.10 1.20 4.94 1.14 48 96
RL 2001 1797 513 94 69 3.24 1.15 4.71 1.15 51 91
Italy RL 1991 2221 500 101 0 2.22 1.29 3.74 1.41 49 73
RL 2001 1590 513 92 53 2.28 1.31 3.59 1.38 49 68
New Zealand RL 1991 3016 498 110 0 3.57 1.12 4.65 1.38 47 90
RL 2001 1188 502 111 70 3.52 1.13 4.54 1.34 49 87
Singapore RL 1991 7326 481 88 0 3.52 1.22 3.91 1.44 48 27
RL 2001 3601 489 106 70 3.39 1.30 4.17 1.43 48 42
Slovenia RL 1991 3297 458 96 0 3.84 1.04 4.32 1.31 48 88
RL 2001 1502 493 91 58 3.81 1.01 4.10 1.33 48 88
Sweden RL 1991 4301 513 116 0 3.48 0.97 5.09 1.13 49 89
RL 2001 5361 498 115 75 3.00 1.03 4.87 1.19 49 86
USA RL 1991 6433 521 90 0 3.50 1.13 4.52 1.39 50 95
RL 2001 1826 511 94 71 3.42 1.19 4.20 1.39 50 86
  1. V1. Overall reading achievement, V2. How often do you use computer at home? (proportion weekly or daily), V3. How often do you borrow books from a school or public library? [never (1), hardly ever (2), monthly (3), once a week (4), more often (5)], V4. About how many books are there in your home? [none (1), 1–10 (2), 11–50 (3), 51–100 (4), 101–200 (5)], V5. Are you a boy or a girl? [boy (0), girl (1)], V6. How often do you speak [language of test] at home? [always (1), not always (0)]
  2. RL reading literacy