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Table 2 OLS estimates and dependent variables (PISA scores in 2010)

From: Introduction to instrumental variables and their application to large-scale assessment data

Predictors Reading Mathematics Science
Friends in classroom −0.733 (1.410) −0.340 (1.384) −2.983** (1.435)
PISA 2009 score 0.779*** (0.0124) 0.882*** (0.0140) 0.842*** (0.0136)
ESCS 2.274** (1.101) 2.440** (1.005) 1.443 (1.175)
Live in the countryside 0.186 (1.940) 0.230 (2.026) −1.170 (2.168)
Type of school
General comprehensive (Reference category)
Vocational with comprehensive program −14.69*** (3.854) −2.025 (4.075) −9.460** (4.076)
Basic vocational school −39.53*** (4.071) −30.22*** (4.317) −34.16*** (4.642)
Female 5.942*** (1.934) −0.821 (2.072) −0.312 (2.168)
N 4951 4951 4951
Adj. R2 0.793 0.833 0.777
  1. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. * p < 0.1; ** p < 0.05; *** p < 0.01