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Table 1 Examples of IVs in studies connected with education (sorted by year in categories)

From: Introduction to instrumental variables and their application to large-scale assessment data

Study Outcome variable(s) Explanatory variable Instrumental variable
Institutional rules and personal characteristics
Angrist and Krueger (1991) Earnings Education Quarter of birth
Angrist and Lavy (1999) Achievement test scores Class size Discontinuities in class size
Currie and Yelowitz (2000) School quality, grade repetition (among others) Public housing project participation Sex composition in household
Angrist and Lavy (2002) Achievement test scores Use of computers Funded program
Weber and Puhani (2006) PIRLS scores among others Age Assigned relative age
Bedard and Dhuey (2006) TIMSS scores Age Assigned relative age
Lee and Fish (2010) TIMSS and NAEP scores Age and grade Assigned relative age and grade
Hanushek et al. (2015) Earnings Cognitive skills: literacy, numeracy, problem solving Minimal school-leaving age
Deviations from cohort trends
Hoxby (2000) Achievement test scores Class size Cohort composition “surprise”
Hoxby (2002) Achievement test scores Classroom composition Cohort composition “surprise”
Wößmann and West (2006) TIMSS scores Class size School’s average class size controlling for fixed effects
Proximity to relevant educational institutions
Rouse (1995) Educational attainment Community colleges Distance to school
Neal (1997) Achievement test scores Catholic school Distance to school
Dee (2004) Civic participation College Distance to college