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Table 3 Hypothesised response patterns associated with stable proficiency, a decline in engagement, a decline in proficiency, and test fatigue (example for reading, 2003 and 2009)

From: Changes in achievement on PISA: the case of Ireland and implications for international assessment practice

Stable achievement P1 2009–P1 2003 P4 2009–P4 2003
Percent correct No change No change
Percent missing No change No change
Decline in engagement P1 2009–P1 2003 P4 2009–P4 2003
Percent correct No change Decrease
Percent missing No change Increase
Decline in proficiency P1 2009–P1 2003 P4 2009–P4 2003
Percent correct Decrease Decrease
Percent missing Increase Increase
Test fatigue P1 2003–P4 2003 P1 2009–P4 2009
Percent correct Decrease Decrease
Percent missing Increase Increase
  1. Note. P1 = position 1, P4 = position 4.