An IEA-ETS Research Institute Journal

# Table 2 Regression coefficients of instructional variables on schools' mean scores in mathematics

Instructional practice Regression coefficient
Low-achieving countries Medium-achieving countries High-achieving countries
(a) Instructional practices that focus on developing computational skills
Practice four operations without using a calculator (ASAM) -11.4* (13.4)* -24.8** -1.0 (23.8**)
Write equations and fractions (EFR) -7.8* (3.6) -11.4** -14.3* (-2.9)
Memorize formulas and procedures (FRR) -19.5*** (-1.9) -17.6* -8.9 (8.7)
Solve problems in geometry (GSA) 2.3 (7.1) -4.8 -3.8 (1.0)
Interpret data in tables, charts and graphs (GCT) 14.6* (7.5) 7.1 11.4* (4.3)
Work on fractions and decimals (WFD) 22.2*** (30.0***) -7.8 -3.0 (4.8)
Review homework (ROH) -15.4* (-4.3) -11.1* -5.7* (5.3)
Listen to teacher lecture (LSP) -10.8 (7.4) -18.2* -12.7* (5.5)
Begin homework in class (BHC) 27.4*** (-22.9***) 4.4 5.3 (0.9)
Have quizzes or tests (HQT) 18.7** (7.8) 10.9 4.8 (-6.1)
Use computers (COM) 41.5*** (18.3**) 23.1*** 16.9*** (-6.3)
Use calculators (CAL) 4.6 (-5.9) 10.5* -6.1 (-16.6*)
(c) Constructivist modes of instruction
Students work out problems on their own (WPO) 12.7** (44.5***) -31.8*** -28.5*** (3.3)
Students explain their answers (EXP) -26.1** (6.0) -32.0*** -14.3** (17.8)
Students decide on their own about procedures for solving problems (SCP) 11.0* (14.7) -3.6 -12.7* (-9.0)
Work together in small groups (WSG) 15.1** (-0.3) 15.4** 11.1*** (-4.3)
Relate what is learned to daily life (MDL) 9.2* (5.5) 3.7 1.9 (-1.8)
1. Note: In parentheses – regression coefficients of the instructional variable with school's affiliation with either low- or high-achieving groups of countries, compared to that in the medium-achieving group.
2. *** = p ≤ .000; ** p ≤ = .01; * p ≤ = . 05.