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Table 3 Standardized regression coefficients for relations between student. family and school-related characteristics and the math achievement in terms of location of the school

From: The relative effect of student, family and school-related factors on math achievement by location of the school

  Model I Model II Model III
B SE B β B SE B β B SE B β
Urban
 Student-related
  Constant 160,75 23,55   269,46 23,15   209,70 36,08  
  Gender 5.56 2.5 0.03* 4.87 2.46 0.03* 4.37 2.47 0.03
  Often speak language of test at home 5.56 3.45 0.04 3.99 3 0.03 5.14 2.88 0.04
  About how often absent from school − 13.1 2.41 − 0.14* − 12.05 2.28 − 0.13* − 11.84 2.24 − 0.13*
  Student attended preschool 14.24 2.55 0.16* 1.86 2.37 0.02 0 2.45 0
  Early numeracy tasks 6.57 0.86 0.16* 4.53 0.8 0.11* 4.38 0.79 0.11*
  Students sense of school belonging 2.63 1.25 0.06* 2.47 1.04 0.05* 2.16 0.99 0.05*
  Student bullying − 2.26 0.9 − 0.05* − 2 0.91 − 0.05* − 2.01 0.89 − 0.05*
  Students like learning math 3.35 1.53 0.06* 1.18 1.43 0.02 0.77 1.35 0.01
  Engaging teaching in math lessons 1.36 1.24 0.03 0.4 1.18 0.01 0.01 1.1 0
  Students confident in math 15.6 1.09 0.38* 13.05 1.01 0.32* 12.88 1.02 0.32*
 Family-related
  Parents’ highest education level     16.69 1.64 0.28* 13.14 1.82 0.22*
  Parents’ highest occupation level     3.53 1.01 0.06* 2.96 0.92 0.05*
  Early numeric activities before school     4.64 1.13 0.11* 4.41 1.1 0.10*
  Parents perceptions of school perf     − 0.36 0.92 − 0.01 − 1.26 0.86 − 0.03
  Parent attitude towards math and science     − 1.01 1.08 − 0.02 − 0.07 1.03 0
 School-related
  School emphasize on academic success        3.09 1.4 0.07*
  Instruction affluent by math resource        0.58 1.7 0.01
  School discipline problems        − 3.97 1.46 − 0.10*
  School composition by students background        − 7.02 3.81 − 0.07
 Adjusted R2    0.31    0.41    0.44
 ΔR2    0.31    0.1    0.04
 F   107,99   77,44   23,03
Suburban
 Student-related
  Constant 44.28 42.22   169.17 33.95   83.42 71.72  
  Gender 1.27 5.37 0.01 0.06 4.48 0 − 1.67 4.59 − 0.01
  Often speak language of test at home 3.45 4.91 0.03 2.62 4.27 0.02 2.15 3.89 0.02
  About how often absent from school − 21.52 3.42 − 0.23* − 17.61 − 2.82 − 0.19* − 18.66 − 3.33 − 0.20*
  Student attended preschool 2.27 4.41 0.02 − 4.28 2.63 − 0.04 − 2.61 2.72 − 0.02
  Early numeracy tasks 9.47 1.58 0.22* 4.66 1.55 0.11* 4.68 1.57 0.11*
  Students sense of school belonging 1.96 1.85 0.04 1.08 1.73 0.02 0.32 1.65 0.01
  Student bullying − 5.16 1.99 − 0.11* − 5.23 − 1.59 − 0.11* − 4.43 1.57 − 0.09*
  Students like learning math − 2.13 3.58 − 0.03 1.86 2.68 0.03 1.8 2.67 0.03
  Engaging teaching in math lessons 6.24 1.98 0.12* 3.6 1.64 0.07* 3.35 1.82 0.06
  Students confident in math 15.59 1.74 0.31* 12.3 1.49 0.25* 12.37 1.47 0.25*
 Family-related
  Parents’ highest education level     21.56 2.43 0.29* 20.1 3.18 0.27*
  Parents’ highest occupation level     5.39 2.36 0.07* 5.13 2.32 0.07*
  Early numeric activities before school     7.03 1.48 0.17* 6.08 1.6 0.15*
  Parents perceptions of school perf     0.34 1.61 0.01 − 0.52 1.66 − 0.01
  Parent attitude towards math and science     0.44 1.42 0.01 0.91 1.35 0.02
 School-related
  School emphasize on academic success        9.34 3.51 0.16*
  Instruction affluent by math resource        − 0.36 5.44 0
  School discipline problems        − 1.49 2.56 − 0.03
  School composition by students background        6.59 11.5 0.03
 Adjusted R2    0.37    0.49    0.51
 ΔR2    0.37    0.12    0.02
 F    39.5   50.48    7.26
Medium-size city
 Student-related
  Constant 107.53 33.04   235.57 37.84   222.45 45.3  
  Gender 8.99 3.08 0.05* 8.25 3.43 0.05* 8.37 3.35 0.05*
  Often speak language of test at home 4.6 3.8 0.04 3.64 3.03 − 0.03 2.06 3 0.02
  About how often absent from school − 8.69 2.96 − 0.08* − 7.66 2.61 − 0.07* − 8.28 2.65 − 0.08*
  Student attended preschool 15.35 3.97 0.16* 1.71 2.08 0.02 0.49 1.76 0
  Early numeracy tasks 7.17 1.66 0.18* 3.94 1.25 0.10* 3.45 1.2 0.09*
  Students sense of school belonging 3.58 1.77 0.07* 3.41 1.46 0.07* 3.26 1.49 0.07*
  Student bullying − 1.85 1.2 − 0.04 − 1.59 1.23 − 0.04 − 1.6 1.12 − 0.04
  Students like learning math 0.94 1.99 0.02 2.04 1.52 0.03 2.1 1.33 0.04
  Engaging teaching in math lessons 4.47 2.51 0.09 2.36 2.06 0.05 1.67 1.93 0.03
  Students confident in math 15.42 1.33 0.36* 12.57 1.16 0.30* 12.41 1.17 0.29*
 Family-related
  Parents’ highest education level     20.59 2.07 0.32* 18.5 2.08 0.29*
  Parents’ highest occupation level     5.32 1.84 0.09* 4.26 1.55 0.07*
  Early numeric activities before school     3.8 1.49 0.09* 3.99 1.28 0.10*
  Parents perceptions of school perf     1.98 1.33 0.04 1.76 1.39 0.03
  Parent attitude towards math and science     − 0.45 1.38 − 0.01 − 0.23 1.28 0
 School-related
  School emphasize on academic success        3.18 1.69 0.07
  Instruction affluent by math resource        1.34 2.34 0.02
  School discipline problems        − 0.39 1.59 − 0.01
  School composition by students background        13.69 5.48 0.12*
 Adjusted R2    0.34    0.46    0.48
 ΔR2    0.34    0.12    0.02
 F    69.17    69.59    15.31
Village
 Student-related
  Constant 50.59 52.63   150.54 55.51   − 32.07 100.76  
  Gender − 5.77 6.96 − 0.03 − 7.36 6.65 − 0.04 − 5.93 6.61 − 0.03
  Often speak language of test at home 32.56 5.85 0.30* 28.78 5.25 0.26* 18.65 5.69 0.17*
  About how often absent from school − 11.25 3.58 − 0.12* − 8.67 3.22 − 0.09* − 10.92 3.39 − 0.11*
  Student attended preschool 4.57 3.87 0.04 0.97 4.45 0.01 0.08 4.4 0
  Early numeracy tasks 10.67 1.76 0.24* 7.19 2.06 0.16* 6.65 1.98 0.15*
  Students sense of school belonging 3.46 2.65 0.07 3.83 2.51 0.07 5.13 2.38 0.10*
  Student bullying − 1.55 1.87 − 0.03 − 1.65 1.71 − 0.03 − 0.02 1.76 0
  Students like learning math 5.42 3.35 0.08 4.7 3 0.07 5.76 2.78 0.09*
  Engaging teaching in math lessons 2.52 2.61 0.04 1.68 2.53 0.03 0.45 2.3 0.01
  Students confident in math 15.12 2.28 0.29* 14.09 2.22 0.27* 14.05 2.32 0.27*
 Family-related
  Parents’ highest education level     15.56 3.82 0.15* 13.91 3.73 0.13*
  Parents’ highest occupation level     6.97 3.61 0.08 8.24 3.57 0.09*
  Early numeric activities before school     5.57 2.03 0.12* 5.29 1.94 0.11*
  Parents perceptions of school perf     − 1.71 2.21 − 0.03 − 2.82 2.33 − 0.05
  Parent attitude towards math and science     3.33 2.57 0.06 3.57 2.44 0.07
 School-related
  School emphasize on academic success        17.49 7.83 0.23*
  Instruction affluent by math resource        1.31 3.18 0.02
  School discipline problems        − 1.29 3.42 − 0.03
  School composition by students background        14.34 9.91 0.11*
 Adjusted R2    0.43    0.48    0.52
 ΔR2    0.43    0.05    0.04
 F    45.53    10.85    28.01
  1. *p < 0.05