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Table 2 Results from the invariance alignment method per measurement occasion

From: The achievement gap in reading competence: the effect of measurement non-invariance across school types

Grade 5 (N = 4885) Grade 7 (N = 6182) Grade 9 (N = 4573)
Item IA Item IA Item IA
Discrimination   Discrimination   Discrimination  
reg50110_c   reg70110_c   reg90610_c  
reg5012s_c   reg70120_c   reg90620_c  
reg50130_c   reg7013s_c HS reg9063s_c  
reg50140_c LS reg70140_c   reg90640_c  
reg50150_c   reg7015s_c   reg90660_c  
reg5016s_c   reg7016s_c   reg90670_c  
reg50170_c   reg70610_c   reg90680_c  
reg50210_c   reg70620_c HS reg90810_c  
reg50220_c   reg7063s_c   reg90820_c  
reg50230_c   reg70640_c   reg9083s_c  
reg50240_c   reg70650_c   reg90840_c  
reg50250_c   reg7066s_c   reg90850_c  
reg5026s_c   reg70210_c   reg90860_c  
reg50310_c   reg70220_c   reg90870_c  
reg50320_c   reg7023s_c   reg90210_c  
reg50330_c   reg7024s_c   reg90220_c  
reg50340_c   reg70250_c   reg90230_c  
reg50350_c   reg7026s_c   reg90250_c  
reg50360_c   reg70310_c   reg90710_c  
reg50370_c MS, HS reg70320_c   reg90720_c  
reg50410_c LS reg7033s_c HS reg90730_c  
reg5042s_c LS reg70340_c   reg9074s_c  
reg50430_c LS reg70350_c   reg90750_c  
reg50440_c HS reg70360_c   reg9091s_c  
reg50460_c LS reg70410_c   reg90920_c  
reg50510_c   reg70420_c   reg90930_c  
reg5052s_c   reg70430_c   reg90940_c  
reg50530_c   reg70440_c   reg90950_c  
reg50540_c   reg7045s_c   reg90960_c  
reg5055s_c   reg70460_c   reg9097s_c  
reg50560_c   reg7051s_c   reg90410_c  
reg50570_c   reg70520_c   reg90420_c  
   reg7053s_c   reg90430_c  
   reg7055s_c   reg90440_c  
   reg70560_c   reg90450_c  
   reg7071s_c MS reg90460_c  
   reg70720_c HS reg9047s_c  
   reg70730_c   reg90510_c  
   reg70740_c   reg90520_c LS
   reg7075s_c LS reg90530_c LS
     reg90550_c LS
     reg90560_c HS
Threshold   Threshold   Threshold  
reg50110_c   reg70110_c   reg90610_c  
reg5012s_c, cat.1 HS reg70120_c   reg90620_c  
reg5012s_c, cat.2   reg7013s_c, cat.1   reg9063s_c, cat.1  
reg50130_c   reg7013s_c, cat.2   reg9063s_c, cat.2 AT
reg50140_c LS reg70140_c   reg90640_c  
reg50150_c   reg7015s_c   reg90660_c  
reg5016s_c, cat.1   reg7016s_c, cat.1   reg90670_c  
reg5016s_c, cat.2   reg7016s_c, cat.2   reg90680_c  
reg5016s_c, cat.3   reg7016s_c, cat.3   reg90810_c  
reg5016s_c, cat.4   reg70610_c   reg90820_c HS
reg5016s_c, cat.5 HS reg70620_c   reg9083s_c  
reg50170_c HS reg7063s_c, cat.1   reg90840_c  
reg50210_c   reg7063s_c, cat.2   reg90850_c  
reg50220_c   reg70640_c   reg90860_c  
reg50230_c   reg70650_c   reg90870_c  
reg50240_c   reg7066s_c, cat.1   reg90210_c  
reg50250_c   reg7066s_c, cat.2   reg90220_c  
reg5026s_c   reg7066s_c, cat.3   reg90230_c  
reg50310_c   reg7066s_c, cat.4   reg90250_c  
reg50320_c   reg70210_c   reg90710_c  
reg50330_c   reg70220_c   reg90720_c  
reg50340_c   reg7023s_c, cat.1   reg90730_c  
reg50350_c   reg7023s_c, cat.2   reg9074s_c, cat.1  
reg50360_c   reg7024s_c, cat.1   reg9074s_c, cat.2  
reg50370_c MS, HS reg7024s_c, cat.2   reg9074s_c, cat.3  
reg50410_c LS reg70250_c   reg9074s_c, cat.4 LS
reg5042s_c, cat.1 LS reg7026s_c, cat.1   reg90750_c  
reg5042s_c, cat.2 LS reg7026s_c, cat.2   reg9091s_c, cat.1  
reg5042s_c, cat.3 LS reg7026s_c, cat.3   reg9091s_c, cat.2  
reg50430_c AT, HS reg7026s_c, cat.4   reg90920_c  
reg50440_c HS reg70310_c   reg90930_c  
reg50460_c HS reg70320_c   reg90940_c  
reg50510_c   reg7033s_c, cat.1   reg90950_c  
reg5052s_c, cat.1   reg7033s_c, cat.2   reg90960_c LS
reg5052s_c, cat.2   reg7033s_c, cat.3   reg9097s_c, cat.1  
reg5052s_c, cat.3   reg70340_c   reg9097s_c, cat.2  
reg50530_c   reg70350_c   reg9097s_c, cat.3  
reg50540_c AT reg70360_c   reg90410_c  
reg5055s_c, cat.1   reg70410_c HS reg90420_c  
reg5055s_c, cat.2   reg70420_c   reg90430_c  
reg5055s_c, cat.3   reg70430_c HS reg90440_c  
reg50560_c   reg70440_c   reg90450_c HS
reg50570_c   reg7045s_c, cat.1 LS, HS reg90460_c  
   reg7045s_c, cat.2   reg9047s_c, cat.1  
   reg7045s_c, cat.3   reg9047s_c, cat.2  
   reg70460_c   reg90510_c  
   reg7051s_c, cat.1   reg90520_c LS, HS
   reg7051s_c, cat.2   reg90530_c HS
   reg70520_c   reg90540_c HS
   reg7053s_c, cat.1   reg90550_c LS
   reg7053s_c, cat.2   reg90560_c HS
   reg7055s_c, cat.1   reg90570_c LS, HS
   reg7055s_c, cat.2 HS   
   reg7055s_c, cat.3    
   reg70560_c HS   
   reg7071s_c, cat.1    
   reg7071s_c, cat.2 HS   
   reg70730_c MS   
   reg7075s_c, cat.1    
   reg7075s_c, cat.2    
   reg7075s_c, cat.3    
AII grade 5 0.644 AII grade 7 0.631 AII grade 9 0.492
  1. IA invariance alignment method for school types, presenting non-invariant groups (HS high schools, MS  middle secondary schools, CS  comprehensive schools, AT  schools offering all school tracks except high school, LS  lower secondary schools). AII Average Invariance Index: Average R2 across all parameters ranging from 0 (indicating full non-invariance) to 1 (indicating perfect scalar invariance)