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Table 5 Overview of the studies included in the systematic review (N = 22)

From: A call to action: a systematic review of ethical and regulatory issues in using process data in educational assessment

Author Year Country/regiona Education levelb Designc Assessmentd Ethics/privacye
Angeli et al. 2017 Europe, Australia K-12, University Empirical Indirect Acknowledged
Rodriguez-Triana et al. 2016 Spain, Europe K-12, University Empirical Indirect Embedded
Zeide 2017 US K-12 Theoretical Indirect Results
Avella et al. 2016 Not specified University Empirical General Results
Bennett 2018 Not specified Multiple Theoretical Focused Embedded
Cormack 2016 UK University Theoretical General Embedded
Drachselr & Kalz 2016 Not specified University Theoretical Focused Acknowledged
Dyckhoff et al. 2012 Germany University Empirical Focused Embedded
Ekowo et al. 2016 US University Empirical Indirect Results
Greller & Drachsler 2012 Not specified Multiple Empirical Indirect Results
Hildebrandt 2017 Europe Multiple Theoretical Indirect Embedded
Howell et al. 2018 Australia University Empirical General Results
Ifenthaler & Schumacher 2016 Germany University Empirical Indirect Embedded
MacNeill et al. 2014 UK, US University Theoretical Indirect Results
Pena-Ayala 2018 Not specified Multiple Theoretical Indirect Embedded
Sun 2014 US University Theoretical Indirect Embedded
Timmis et al. 2016 Not specified Multiple Empirical Focused Results
Van der Schaaf et al. 2017 Netherlands University Empirical Focused Results
Van der Stappen & Lee 2018 Netherlands University Empirical General Embedded
Wang 2016 Not specified Multiple Theoretical Indirect Embedded
Watson et al. 2017 UK University Empirical Focused Results
Wolf et al. 2014 US Multiple Theoretical Indirect Results
  1. aCountry/Region. Where the authors of a study reported specific countries or a region in which the study was conducted or to which the analysis and findings primarily applied, this is noted. Otherwise, the study is identified as ‘not specified.’
  2. bEducation level. K-12; University/Higher Education; Training/Adult; Multiple/Not specified.
  3. cOverall design of study. Empirical; Theoretical/Literature review;
  4. dHow assessment is incorporated into study. General = Study focuses on education generally, but noted potential use of process data in relation to student performance/assessment; Indirect = Indirect treatment of assessment; Focused = Study focused on assessment.
  5. eHow ethics and/or privacy are featured in the study. Acknowledged = Only acknowledged the issue of ethics/privacy in the study; Results = Issues of ethics/privacy are presented as part of the results of the study; Embedded = ethics/privacy is embedded in the design of the study