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Table 4 Coding used to categorise studies

From: A call to action: a systematic review of ethical and regulatory issues in using process data in educational assessment

Design—Method
 1 Empirical
 2 Theoretical / Literature-based
Design—Assessment
 1 Study addresses education generally, noting potential use of LA/process data to improve students’ performance (where assessment outcomes are assumed as indicators of performance)
 2 Study includes some indirect examples of educational assessment or application on educational assessment data
 3 Study is within the field of Educational assessment
Design—Ethics/privacy
 1 Only acknowledged the issue of ethics/privacy in the study
 2 Issues of ethics/privacy are presented as part of the results of the study
 3 Issues of ethics/privacy embedded in the design of study