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Table 1 Process data and related concepts

From: A call to action: a systematic review of ethical and regulatory issues in using process data in educational assessment

Concept Description
Process data Data contained in a log file that relate to students’ activity and engagement during a digital assessment
Log file Digital files containing all data captured and retained during students’ engagement with digital assessment
Educational data mining (EDM)a A process that reveals patterns, sometimes imperceptible and unexpected, in large educational datasets using statistical techniques, machine learning and data mining
Learning analyticsb The capture of data generated by learners as they work within a digital environment and the visualisation and use of these additional data to improve teaching, learning and the learning environment
Big datac A loose term focused on the storage of large quantities of data in accessible form that can be used to analyse, predict and to make decisions
  1. aDescription adapted from Bienkowaski et al., (2012); Gobert et al. (2013) & Angeli et al., (2017).
  2. bDescription adapted from Avella et al., (2016); Pijeira-Diaz et al., (2016), cited in Pena-Ayala (2018); Wintrup (2017); Zhang et al., (2018) & SoLAR (online).
  3. cDescription adapted from Picciano (2012) & Wang (2017)