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Table 4 Mediation effect estimates based on single-indicator latent-variable models

From: Explaining Waldorf students’ high motivation but moderate achievement in science: is inquiry-based science education the key?

Model Standardized estimate SE
Model 1: outcome is science achievement
 Model without mediator
  Waldorf school attendance → outcome (c) − 0.32* 0.12
 Model with mediator
  Waldorf school attendance → IBSE (a) 0.82* 0.13
  IBSE → outcome (b) 0.09 0.10
  Waldorf school attendance → outcome (c') − 0.40* 0.16
  Indirect effect (ab) 0.07 0.80
Model 2: outcome is enjoyment of learning science
 Model without mediator
  Waldorf school attendance → outcome (c) 0.24 0.14
 Model with mediator
  Waldorf school attendance → IBSE (a) 0.82* 0.13
  IBSE → outcome (b) 0.37* 0.12
  Waldorf school attendance → outcome (c') − 0.07 0.17
  Indirect effect (ab) 0.31* 0.12
Model 3: outcome is interest in broad science topics
 Model without mediator
  Waldorf school attendance → outcome (c) 0.30* 0.11
 Model with mediator
  Waldorf school attendance → IBSE (a) 0.82* 0.13
  IBSE → outcome (b) 0.30* 0.11
  Waldorf school attendance → outcome (c') 0.06 0.14
  Indirect effect (ab) 0.24* 0.10
  1. SE standard error
  2. *p < 0.05