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Table 9 Mean student test-taking effort and correlation with science achievement computed on the subsample of students who did not have any not-reached items at the end of the session (cluster 2 or 4)

From: Student test-taking effort in low-stakes assessments: evidence from the English version of the PISA 2015 science test

Country Mean effort Correlation between effort and science achievement
Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4
\(\widehat{\upmu }\) SE \(\widehat{\upmu }\) SE \(\widehat{\upmu }\) SE \(\widehat{\upmu }\) SE \(\widehat{\uprho }\) SE \(\widehat{\uprho }\) SE \(\widehat{\uprho }\) SE \(\widehat{\uprho }\) SE
AUS 0.94 0.00 0.90 0.00 0.91 0.00 0.87 0.00 0.41 0.02 0.53 0.01 0.51 0.01 0.58 0.01
CAN 0.95 0.00 0.91 0.00 0.91 0.00 0.88 0.00 0.36 0.02 0.44 0.01 0.49 0.02 0.54 0.02
GBR 0.94 0.00 0.89 0.00 0.89 0.00 0.85 0.01 0.39 0.02 0.50 0.02 0.51 0.02 0.56 0.02
IRL 0.95 0.00 0.92 0.00 0.93 0.00 0.90 0.00 0.36 0.02 0.44 0.02 0.43 0.02 0.47 0.02
NZL 0.95 0.00 0.90 0.00 0.92 0.00 0.87 0.01 0.39 0.03 0.50 0.02 0.47 0.02 0.55 0.02
USA 0.94 0.00 0.89 0.00 0.92 0.00 0.87 0.01 0.36 0.02 0.50 0.02 0.42 0.02 0.53 0.02
  1. The subsample of students without not-reached items is composed of 87.96% (first session) and 86.42% (second session) of the students of the total sample