Skip to main content

Table 8 Percentage of variance in science achievement explained by student test-taking effort

From: Student test-taking effort in low-stakes assessments: evidence from the English version of the PISA 2015 science test

Country Cluster % of gross variance explained % of net variance explained % of joint variance explained (with all predictors) % of joint variance explained (with expectancy-value, attitude towards school and science var.) Proportion of the net % of var. in the gross % of var. explained
AUS 1 14.06 5.63 8.42 7.64 0.40
2 25.36 9.89 15.47 13.72 0.39
3 25.61 11.04 14.57 13.08 0.43
4 32.66 14.40 18.26 16.02 0.44
CAN 1 10.92 6.00 4.92 3.75 0.55
2 14.39 7.44 6.95 5.56 0.52
3 17.14 9.02 8.11 7.34 0.53
4 22.63 11.76 10.87 9.32 0.52
GBR 1 13.01 7.85 5.17 5.41 0.60
2 23.01 13.19 9.82 8.77 0.57
3 21.51 11.62 9.89 9.50 0.54
4 26.71 13.31 13.40 12.54 0.50
IRL 1 11.38 4.73 6.65 5.94 0.42
2 15.84 6.34 9.50 8.40 0.40
3 17.05 7.58 9.47 8.37 0.44
4 22.31 10.94 11.37 10.00 0.49
NZL 1 11.71 5.54 6.17 6.28 0.47
2 21.13 8.66 12.47 11.79 0.41
3 22.04 8.13 13.91 12.07 0.37
4 29.32 10.91 18.41 16.70 0.37
USA 1 9.68 6.15 3.54 3.44 0.63
2 20.12 10.67 9.45 7.55 0.53
3 18.98 9.63 9.35 8.79 0.51
4 26.46 12.05 14.40 11.66 0.46
  1. Small discrepancies with the squared correlations of Table 7 are due to the listwise deletion of students with missing values on the covariates used for the analysis of Table 8.