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Table 6 Regression of student test-taking effort on expectancy-value proxies

From: Student test-taking effort in low-stakes assessments: evidence from the English version of the PISA 2015 science test

Effect AUS CAN GBR
Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4
Intercept 2.47*** 1.7*** 1.91*** 1.46*** 2.48*** 1.89*** 2.04*** 1.71*** 2.59*** 1.84*** 1.88*** 1.46***
Expectancy
SCIEEFF 0 0.04 -0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 − 0.05** 0 − 0.03 -0.01 − 0.04* − 0.04
ENVAWARE 0.03 0.05** 0.06* 0.05* 0.01 0.04* 0.04*** 0.03** 0.02 0.05* 0.04 0.04
Value
ANXTEST 0.06** 0.02 − 0.03 − 0.05 0 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.05** 0.02 0 0 0.01
INTBRSCI 0.07** 0.05 0.15*** 0.15*** 0.09*** 0.06** 0.09*** 0.09*** 0.11*** 0.13*** 0.19*** 0.17***
JOYSCIE 0.07** 0.1*** 0.06* 0.07** 0.03 0.07*** 0.1*** 0.1*** 0.1*** 0.1*** 0.08** 0.12***
SCIEACT − 0.07*** − 0.06* − 0.08*** − 0.1** − 0.08*** − 0.09*** − 0.07*** − 0.08*** − 0.07*** − 0.08*** − 0.1*** − 0.1***
Effect IRL NZL USA
Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4
Intercept 2.76*** 2.09*** 2.45*** 2.06*** 2.91*** 1.93*** 2.28*** 1.72*** 2.58*** 1.99*** 2.35*** 1.86***
Expectancy
SCIEEFF 0.04* 0.04 0.04 0.04 − 0.01 0.03 0.01 0 − 0.02 − 0.01 − 0.03 0.01
ENVAWARE 0.05** 0.06** 0.03 0.01 0.05 0.03 0.08** 0.11*** 0.04 0.04 0.1*** 0.08***
Value
ANXTEST 0.01 0.02 0.01 − 0.01 0 − 0.02 − 0.04 − 0.04 0.05 0.04 − 0.01 − 0.05
INTBRSCI 0.11*** 0.07*** 0.14*** 0.14*** 0.09*** 0.09** 0.08** 0.07* 0.04 0.09** 0.07*** 0.04
JOYSCIE 0.05* 0.06** 0.04 0.03 0.05* 0.08** 0.15*** 0.16*** 0.06* 0.11*** 0.08*** 0.11***
SCIEACT − 0.04 − 0.03 − 0.04** − .02 − 0.06** − 0.08** − 0.13*** − 0.11*** − 0.03 − 0.09*** − 0.09*** − 0.09***
  1. * p < 0.1; ** p < 0.05; *** p < 0.01 with Bonferroni correction