Skip to main content

Table 5 Mean and standard deviation of test-taking effort by cluster position and correlation between effort at the beginning and at the end of the session, by session

From: Student test-taking effort in low-stakes assessments: evidence from the English version of the PISA 2015 science test

Country Mean and standard deviation of test-taking effort Correlation between effort estimates for clusters 1 and 2
Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Session 1 Session 2
\(\widehat{\upmu }\) SE \(\widehat{\upsigma }\) SE \(\widehat{\upmu }\) SE \(\widehat{\upsigma }\) SE \(\widehat{\upmu }\) SE \(\widehat{\upsigma }\) SE \(\widehat{\upmu }\) SE \(\widehat{\upsigma }\) SE \(\widehat{\uprho }\) SE \(\widehat{\uprho }\) SE
AUS 0.94 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.88 0.00 0.16 0.00 0.90 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.85 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.63 0.02 0.73 0.01
CAN 0.94 0.00 0.11 0.01 0.89 0.00 0.15 0.01 0.90 0.00 0.14 0.01 0.86 0.00 0.16 0.01 0.62 0.03 0.73 0.02
GBR 0.93 0.00 0.11 0.01 0.87 0.00 0.16 0.01 0.88 0.00 0.16 0.01 0.82 0.01 0.20 0.01 0.63 0.03 0.73 0.02
IRL 0.95 0.00 0.08 0.01 0.90 0.00 0.13 0.01 0.92 0.00 0.11 0.01 0.89 0.01 0.14 0.01 0.58 0.03 0.68 0.03
NZL 0.94 0.00 0.10 0.01 0.87 0.01 0.16 0.01 0.90 0.00 0.13 0.01 0.84 0.01 0.18 0.01 0.61 0.03 0.69 0.03
USA 0.94 0.00 0.10 0.01 0.88 0.00 0.15 0.01 0.91 0.00 0.12 0.01 0.86 0.01 0.16 0.01 0.60 0.04 0.64 0.03