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Table 13 Beta regression of student test-taking effort on expectancy-value proxies in NZL and USA

From: Student test-taking effort in low-stakes assessments: evidence from the English version of the PISA 2015 science test

Effect NZL USA
Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4
\(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE \(\widehat{b}\) SE
Intercept 2.91 0.06 1.93 0.07 2.28 0.06 1.72 0.06 2.58 0.15 1.99 0.07 2.35 0.04 1.86 0.03
Expectancy
 Scieeff − 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.03 − 0.02 0.02 − 0.01 0.02 − 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.02
 Envaware 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.11 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.10 0.02 0.08 0.02
Value
 Anxtest 0.00 0.03 − 0.02 0.03 − 0.04 0.02 − 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 − 0.01 0.03 − 0.05 0.03
 Intbrsci 0.09 0.03 0.09 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.09 0.03 0.07 0.02 0.04 0.02
 Joyscie 0.05 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.15 0.03 0.16 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.11 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.11 0.03
 Scieact − 0.06 0.02 − 0.08 0.03 − 0.13 0.03 − 0.11 0.03 − 0.03 0.03 − 0.09 0.03 − 0.09 0.03 − 0.09 0.02
Precision 16.69 0.69 6.06 0.27 10.56 0.44 6.19 0.21 7.58 0.75 6.10 0.20 10.28 0.31 7.00 0.15
Pseudo R2 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.09 0.02 0.10 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.06 0.01