Skip to main content

Table 6 Total, direct and indirect effects of immigrant status on planning a career in science (0–1)

From: Immigrant optimism or immigrant pragmatism? Linguistic capital, orientation towards science and occupational expectations of adolescent immigrants

  1. Immigrant (total effect) 2. Immigrant (direct effect) Path C in Fig. 1c 3. Immigrant (indirect effect) 4. Indirect effect due to instrumental motivation 5. Indirect effect due to enjoyment of science 6. Instrumental motivation to study science Path D in Fig. 1c 7. Enjoyment of science Path E in Fig. 1c 8. % total effect explained 9. % total effect explained in PISA 2006
  Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE Coeff SE % %
Australia 0.10 0.01 0.07 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.010 0.002 0.14 0.00 0.05 0.01 32% 37%
Austria 0.08 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.012 0.003 0.07 0.01 0.03 0.01 25% 27%
Belgium 0.09 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.011 0.004 0.13 0.01 0.04 0.01 39% 67%
Canada 0.13 0.01 0.09 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.011 0.002 0.17 0.01 0.05 0.01 32% 44%
Denmark 0.22 0.02 0.17 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.016 0.004 0.12 0.01 0.04 0.01 23% 34%
France 0.14 0.02 0.09 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.012 0.003 0.14 0.01 0.04 0.01 37% 48%
Germany 0.10 0.02 0.10 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.006 0.002 0.09 0.01 0.03 0.01 0% 0%
Great Britain 0.16 0.02 0.11 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.009 0.003 0.16 0.01 0.03 0.01 33% 44%
Greece 0.00 0.02 − 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.007 0.002 0.08 0.01 0.04 0.01 na 44
Ireland 0.17 0.02 0.16 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.006 0.002 0.15 0.01 0.03 0.01 5% 78%
Israel 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.02 − 0.01 0.01 − 0.01 0.01 − 0.004 0.004 0.10 0.01 0.07 0.01 na na
Luxembourg 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.004 0.002 0.11 0.01 0.04 0.01 19% 30%
Netherlands 0.19 0.03 0.15 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.024 0.004 0.11 0.01 0.06 0.01 23% 10%
New Zealand 0.13 0.02 0.07 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.015 0.004 0.15 0.01 0.04 0.01 41% 58%
Norway 0.15 0.03 0.11 0.03 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.016 0.004 0.10 0.01 0.04 0.01 30% 46%
Spain 0.12 0.02 0.09 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.013 0.003 0.14 0.01 0.04 0.01 26% 58%
Sweden 0.21 0.02 0.15 0.02 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.033 0.005 0.08 0.01 0.06 0.01 27% 49%
Switzerland 0.06 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.005 0.002 0.11 0.01 0.03 0.01 14% 26%
United States 0.09 0.02 0.06 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.005 0.002 0.13 0.01 0.03 0.01 33% 28%
  1. Paths C, D, E from Fig. 1c. Control variables not reported to conserve space A. Estimates with BRR weights. PISA 2015 unless otherwise indicated
  2. Coefficients in bold are significantly different from zero at p = 0.05, Coeff denotes unstandardized coefficient, SE denotes standard error A Analyses for 2006 are in in Appendices S1 and S2, respectively. Other estimates in the full models for 2015 and 2006 are available upon request