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Table 1 Occupational expectations of non-immigrants and immigrants with differing linguistic capitals: average ISEI occupational status scores ranging from 16 to 90

From: Immigrant optimism or immigrant pragmatism? Linguistic capital, orientation towards science and occupational expectations of adolescent immigrants

  Non-migrants S.E N Migrants speak different language home & school S.E N Migrants speak same language home & school S.E N
Australia 61.7 0.27 11,590 70.1 0.74 1144 68.1 0.53 1796
Austria 59.5 0.60 5669 61.2 1.12 988 65.2 1.46 350
Belgium 61.0 1.01 3129 64.7 1.58 393 65.8 1.62 454
Canada 64.8 0.40 15,653 74.1 0.47 2358 73.6 0.43 2047
Denmark 64.1 0.53 5398 69.4 1.59 898 71.9 0.96 865
France 59.3 0.48 5309 61.3 1.38 332 64.2 1.21 467
Germany 56.7 0.51 5354 57.9 1.17 630 60.6 1.48 520
Great Britain 65.6 0.37 12,331 70.5 1.02 753 72.2 0.92 1073
Greece 66.8 0.62 4988 56.6 1.74 195 63.5 1.39 349
Ireland 64.7 0.42 4949 71.4 1.01 395 70.7 1.03 397
Israel 69.9 0.32 5470 67.8 1.05 481 69.8 0.97 647
Luxembourg 63.0 0.42 2549 58.0 0.46 2101 68.6 0.9 649
Netherlands 58.4 0.36 4785 64.7 1.42 292 66.7 1.53 308
New Zealand 62.2 0.42 3306 69.8 0.93 509 69.5 0.93 705
Norway 63.0 0.46 4766 69.7 1.21 383 66.3 1.24 307
Spain 66.2 0.33 6029 66.8 1.21 371 69.0 1.24 336
Sweden 59.7 0.50 4510 67.5 1.03 654 68.1 1.44 294
Switzerland 58.5 0.60 4024 57.3 0.82 1117 60.6 1 719
United States 67.2 0.37 4361 69.5 0.63 911 70.7 0.93 441
  1. PISA 2015. Means in bold are significantly different from means for non-migrant students at p = 0.05, S.E. denotes standard error. Descriptive statistics for other PISA 2015 variables are in Additional file 1: Appendix S1 and their equivalents for 2006 are in Additional file 1: Appendix S2