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Table 7 Multilevel modelling of TIMSS 2011 and 2015 mathematics achievement—Grade 4

From: Examining educational inequalities: insights in the context of improved mathematics performance on national and international assessments at primary level in Ireland

  Step 1 (comparison model across studies) Step 2 (comparison model across cycles) Step 3 Combined model
Variables B (SE) B (SE) B (SE) B (SE)
Student-level 2011 2015 2011 2015 2011 2015 2011—2015
Gender (male) 9.2 (3.90)* 5.4 (3.25) 9.4 (3.62)* 5.6 (3.28) 6.0 (3.29) 7.6 (2.5)*
Books at home (more than 100) 29.9 (3.16)* 34.6 (3.16)* 22.0 (3.14)* 26.4 (3.49)* 26.3 (3.53)* 24.0 (2.4)*
Language spoken at home (English/Irish) 4.4 (4.83) 11.1 (5.74) 5.9 (4.99) 9.0 (5.5) − 9.0 (8.75) 7.3 (3.3)*
Country of birth (Ireland) − 31.0 (10.00)*
Parent education (third-level) 26.8 (3.77)* 32.2 (3.83)* 32.8 (9.96)* 29.4 (3.1)*
Year (2015) 14.8 (4.1)
School-level
Disadvantaged status (Disadvantaged) − 28.8 (8.75)* − 27.4 (6.98)* − 21.8 (8.64)* − 23.0 (6.56)* − 23.8 (6.50)* − 22.5 (5.5)*
Interactions
Language spoken at home*Country of birth 29.3 (9.96)*  
Intercept 520.5 (5.36)* 531.7 (6.13)* 505.6 (5.59)* 514.3 (6.30)* 533.5 (8.63)* 502.9 (4.5)*
Variance explained (R2)
Student-level 5.1% 6.6% 8.5% 11.0% 11.5% 11.0%
School-level 15.7% 29.6% 9.9% 25.8% 26.7% 14.7%
Overall 6.6% 8.2% 8.7% 11.9% 12.4% 11.3%
  1. *p < .05