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Table 2 Demographic features of the samples (%)

From: Examining educational inequalities: insights in the context of improved mathematics performance on national and international assessments at primary level in Ireland

Variables Categories NAMER 2009 NAMER 2014 TIMSS 2011 TIMSS 2015
Gender (biological sex) (0) Girl 48.3 53.6 49.5 47.3
(1) Boy 51.7 46.4 50.5 52.7
Country of birth (0) Outside of Ireland 15.0 11.7 8.8
(1) Ireland 85.0 88.3 91.2
Language most often spoken at homea (0) Another language 5.4 6.9 15.8 12.5
(1) English/Irish 94.6 93.1 84.2 87.5
Number of books at home (0) 100 or fewer 56.5 54.5 60.4 62.6
(1) More than 100 43.5 45.5 39.6 37.4
Highest level of parent education (0) No third-level education 38.5 41.2 30.8
(1) Third-level education 61.5 58.8 69.2
School disadvantaged status (0) Non-disadvantaged 78.2 79.2 80.9 81.9
(1) Disadvantaged 21.8 20.8 19.1 18.1
  1. Weighted percentages are presented. Missing cases were excluded
  2. a The questions asked about language spoken at home differed in each study. NAMER asked students to report whether or not they speak the language of the test (English/Irish) or a different language at home. TIMSS used a Likert scale asking students to report how often they speak the language of the test at home (Always, Almost Always, Sometimes, Never). The percentages presented above in the “Another language” category for TIMSS show the proportion of students reporting that they sometimes or never speak the language of the test at home