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Table 8 Coefficient of the estimates of the selected models

From: Classroom, media and church: explaining the achievement differences in civic knowledge in the bilingual school system of Estonia

  Dependent variable: CCK score
M1 M2 M6 M7
ITLANG 56.729*** 51.948*** 40.424*** 4.266
  (6.135) (4.627) (4.024) (13.651)
Gender (girl = 1)   25.963*** 23.112*** 23.280***
   (2.549) (2.390) (2.383)
HISEI   10.509*** 7.332*** 7.601***
   (1.495) (1.377) (1.373)
HISCED level 2   \(-\)5.045 10.088 15.583
   (23.741) (21.758) (21.748)
HISCED level 3   16.737 23.801 29.162
   (23.121) (21.174) (21.163)
HISCED level 4 or 5   24.765 29.067 34.124
   (23.271) (21.303) (21.282)
HISCED level 6,7,8   23.264 29.510 34.333
   (23.254) (21.289) (21.262)
HOMLIT(11–25 books)   13.069** 12.040** 12.109**
   (5.674) (5.218) (5.202)
HOMLIT (26–100 books)   31.962** 27.645** 27.458**
   (5.348) (4.915) (4.897)
HOMLIT (101–200 books)   44.577** 38.983*** 39.098***
   (5.653) (5.201) (5.184)
HOMLIT more than 200 books   53.381*** 46.128*** 45.297***
   (5.806) (5.344) (5.325)
IMMIG 2nd generation   1.790 5.714 5.647
   (4.932) (4.543) (4.534)
IMMIG 1st generation   5.185 6.708 3.725
   (15.042) (13.796) (13.764)
TLANG (same as home language)   42.627*** 32.696*** 31.659***
   (5.894) (5.429) (5.414)
SINT Not very interested    15.639*** 16.379***
    (3.890) (3.884)
SINT Quite interested    31.843*** 32.608***
    (4.255) (4.246)
SINT Very interested    29.554*** 30.527***
    (6.473) (6.460)
SCHPART    6.477*** 6.629***
    (1.246) (1.241)
OPDISC    9.791*** 10.971***
    (2.305) (2.307)
TRUST_C: Quite a lot    12.565*** − 5.229
    (5.371) (12.968)
TRUST_C: A little    11.524*** 4.203
    (5.520) (12.816)
TRUST_C: Not at all    0.328 8.070
    (6.980) (14.051)
TRUST_SM: Quite a lot    10.264*** − 6.461
    (5.448) (9.526)
TRUST_SM: A little    16.376*** − 1.973
    (5.363) (9.146)
TRUST_SM: Not at all    16.280*** − 10.661
    (6.240) (11.089)
RELINF    -23.254*** − 18.378***
    (1.213) (2.276)
ITLANG:OPDISC    -3.506 − 4.680*
    (2.678) (2.677)
ITLANG:RELINF     6.733**
     (2.672)
ITLANG:TRUST_C 2     20.625
     (14.235)
ITLANG: TRUST_C 3     7.186
     (14.207)
ITLANG: TRUST_C 4     − 20.168
     (16.402)
ITLANG: TRUST_SM 2     27.589**
     (11.638)
ITLANG: TRUST_SM 3     29.524**
     (11.266)
ITLANG: TRUST_SM 4     43.010***
     (13.427)
Constant 501.599*** 399.293*** 373.212*** 392.980***
  (5.329) (24.410) (22.982) (24.537)
Observations 2,857 2,857 2,857 2,857
Log Likelihood \(-\)16,394.650 \(-\)16,131.850 − 15,842.800 − 15,805.830
Akaike Inf. Crit 32,797.290 32,297.700 31,745.600 31,685.660
Bayesian Inf. Crit 32,821.120 32,398.980 31,924.320 31,906.080
  1. Random effect hierarchical models with student weights. Standard errors in brackets. *p \(<\) 0.1; **p \(<\) 0.05; ***p \(<\) 0.01