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Table 4 Standardized and unstandardized effects of ICT resources, use, and attitudes on digitally assessed reading performance

From: Everything in moderation: ICT and reading performance of Dutch 15-year-olds

 Model 1Model 2Model 3
bSEβbSEβbSEβ
Student background
 Gender (ref: girls)− 21.453.33− .11− 22.054.57− .11− 20.294.51− .10
ESCS43.813.13.3449.023.79.3843.883.76.34
ICT resources   − 14.312.45− .12−  5.413.97− .03
 Quadratic   −  3.881.60− .07
ICT use
 At school in general   − 13.163.76− .09− 5.574.23− .04
  Quadratic   − 7.301.78− .11
 Outside school for schoolwork   4.823.76.035.643.55.04
  Quadratic   − 7.291.37− .12
 Outside school for leisure   − 11.392.93− .08− 7.203.28− .05
  Quadratic   .731.10.01
ICT attitudes
 Interest   11.042.39.1014.852.38.13
  Quadratic   −  7.911.18− .12
 Perceived competence   1.273.20.01.983.03.01
  Quadratic   3.212.28.04
 Perceived autonomy   9.503.11.0810.192.93.09
  Quadratic   − 3.481.86− .04
R2.13.02 .17.02 .22.02 
  1. Significant regression coefficients (p ≤ .05) are in italics