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Table 7 Logistic Regression Predicting Low Literacy for LEO, PIAAC, and NEPS among Adults in Employment

From: On the comparability of adults with low literacy across LEO, PIAAC, and NEPS. Methodological considerations and empirical evidence

Effect AME SE 95% p
LL UL
LEO
 Age 34–43 (Ref. 24–33) 0.02 0.02 − 0.02 0.05 0.309
 Age 44–53 (Ref. 24–33) 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.001
 Age 54–64 (Ref. 24–33) 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.08 0.019
 Male 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.07  < 0.001
 Non-German 0.12 0.02 0.09 0.16  < 0.001
 Medium educational attainment (Ref. high) 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.07 0.032
 Low educational attainment (Ref. high) 0.17 0.04 0.09 0.24  < 0.001
 No educational attainment (Ref. high) 0.39 0.06 0.25 0.52  < 0.001
 High occupational status (Ref. very high) 0.03 0.02 − 0.01 0.07 0.103
 Medium occupational status (Ref. very high) 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.09 0.028
 Low occupational status (Ref. very high) 0.10 0.02 0.07 0.14  < 0.001
PIAAC
 Age 34–43 (Ref. 24–33) − 0.01 0.02 − 0.05 0.04 0.759
 Age 44–53 (Ref. 24–33) 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.11 0.010
 Age 54–64 (Ref. 24–33) 0.08 0.03 0.01 0.15 0.036
 Male 0.00 0.02 − 0.04 0.03 0.880
 Non-German 0.17 0.04 0.08 0.26 0.001
 Medium educational attainment (Ref. high) 0.07 0.02 0.03 0.11  < 0.001
 Low educational attainment (Ref. high) 0.18 0.05 0.09 0.27  < 0.001
 No educational attainment (Ref. high) 0.43 0.10 0.23 0.64 0.00
 High occupational status (Ref. very high) 0.03 0.03 − 0.02 0.08 0.266
 Medium occupational status (Ref. very high) 0.05 0.03 − 0.02 0.12 0.152
 Low occupational status (Ref. very high) 0.15 0.03 0.08 0.21  < 0.001
NEPS
 Age 34–43 (Ref. 24–33) 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.053
 Age 44–53 (Ref. 24–33) 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.05  < 0.001
 Age 54–64 (Ref. 24–33) 0.08 0.01 0.07 0.10  < 0.001
 Male 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.05  < 0.001
 Non-German 0.08 0.01 0.06 0.10  < 0.001
 Medium educational attainment (Ref. high) 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.06  < 0.001
 Low educational attainment (Ref. high) 0.11 0.02 0.07 0.15  < 0.001
 No educational attainment (Ref. high) 0.33 0.09 0.16 0.50  < 0.001
 High occupational status (Ref. very high) 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.006
 Medium occupational status (Ref. very high) 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.04  < 0.001
 Low occupational status (Ref. very high) 0.13 0.01 0.11 0.15  < 0.001
  1. AME Average Marginal Effect; LL and UL indicate the lower and upper limits of a confidence interval, respectively