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Table 4 Overview of variables and how they are measured

From: On the comparability of adults with low literacy across LEO, PIAAC, and NEPS. Methodological considerations and empirical evidence

Variable Survey instrument
Low literacy
 LEO Alpha-level 3 and below (Hartig and Riekmann 2012), 5 variables derived from 5 plausible values for literacy skills for each respondent
 PIAAC Proficiency level 1 and below (Yamamoto et al. 2012b), 10 variables derived from 10 plausible values for literacy skills for each respondent
 NEPS Proficiency level 1 (Durda et al. 2020), 1 variable derived from 1 WLE value for literacy skill for each respondent
Gender
 LEO Ascertained by information on the gender
Recoded into 0: female, 1: male
 PIAAC
 NEPS
Age
 LEO Ascertained by information on the date of birth and the interview date For logistic regression recoded into: 1: 24 to 33 years, 2: 34 to 43 years, 3: 44 to 53 years, 4: 54 to 64 years
 PIAAC
 NEPS
Native language
 LEO Which language did you learn first in your childhood? (1: German, 2: another language, 3: bilingual with German and other language, 4: bilingual, without German, 9: not specified)
Recoded into 0: German, 1: non-German
 PIAAC What is your mother tongue? That is, the first language you spoke at home during your childhood and that you still understand (1: German, 2: Turkish, 3: Italian, 4: Polish, 5: Greek, 6: Serbian, 7: Croatian, 8: Russian, 9: another language); Recoded into 0: German, 1: non-German
 NEPS What language did you learn as a child in your family? Recoded into 0: German, 1: non-German
Highest educational attainment
 LEO International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED-97)
Recoded into 3: no (ISCED 1 and below), 2: low (ISCED 2), 1: medium (ISCED 3/4), 0: high (ISCED 5/6)
 PIAAC
 NEPS
Occupational status
 LEO International Socioeconomic Index of Occupational Status (ISEI-08, Ganzeboom 2010)
For logistic regression recoded into: 4: low occupational status (11.56 to 30.91), 3: medium occupational status (30.92 to 50.25), 2: high occupational status (50.26 to 69.60) and 1: very high occupational status (69.61 to 88.96). Note: In NEPS, determined from the spell type (sptype) in the episode split of the biography data (for details, see Rompczyk and Kleinert 2017), in cases of multiple spells, employment spell with the longest duration was selected
 PIAAC
 NEPS
Employment status
 LEO Are you personally at present … (1: full-time employed, 2: part-time employed, 3: unemployed, 4: on parental leave, 5: trainee in company apprenticeship, … 11: other, 99: not specified)
Recoded into 1: employed, 2: unemployed, 3: other
 PIAAC Please have a look at this list and tell me which statement best describes your current situation. Decide which statement you think best suits you (1: full-time employed, 2: part-time working: 3: unemployed, 3: school pupil, student, …10: other)
Recoded into 1: employed, 2: unemployed, 3: other
 NEPS Employment status is determined from the spell type (sptype) in the episode split of the biography data (for details, see Rompczyk and Kleinert 2017)
Recoded into 1: employed, 2: unemployed, 3: other
Sampling weights
 LEO Nonresponse weights [pgew]
 PIAAC Nonresponse weights [SPFWT0] and replicate weights [SPFWT1-SPFWT80]
 NEPS Nonresponse weights [w_t3_cal or w_t5_cal]
  1. The international master version of the PIAAC background questionnaire can be accessed at: https://www.oecd.org/skills/piaac/BQ_MASTER.HTM. The NEPS questionnaire can be accessed at: https://www.neps-data.de/Data-Center/Data-and-Documentation/Starting-Cohort-Adults/Documentation. The LEO questionnaire can be accessed at: https://leo.blogs.uni-hamburg.de/?attachment_id=1081